Why is there 过 in 他在中国住过?
Why is there 过 in 他在中国住过 ? How is this different from 他住了在中国?
What is the difference between 我说错了and 我说了得错?
What is the difference between 爬山 and 登山?
- The former means he once lived in China. The latter doesn't make sense.
- The former makes sense. The latter doesn't.
- They are essentially synonyms. The only nuance between the two is that 爬 literally means crawl or climb and 登 means to step.
Sorry if I can't elaborate too much on the rules behind it; I speak Mandarin natively and never really studied the grammar (a shame, because I should).
Great answer ShotgunJohnny99! I'd add the following for #1:
The 过 signifies the past perfect tense, i.e. that the living happened entirely in the past. The latter phrase isn't proper, better would be "他在中国住了" although it sounds a bit bare and awkward without a period of time, such as "他在中国住了很多年“ (he lived in China for many years.)
"我说错了" directly translates to "I said wrong." However, "我说了的错" (really doesn't need "了") means "The wrong thing that I said." It is the 错 thing that you said (that 我说了).
I hope this helped you to understand it better!
This might help: