Why is there 过 in 他在中国住过?
Why is there 过 in 他在中国住过 ? How is this different from 他住了在中国?
What is the difference between 我说错了and 我说了得错?
What is the difference between 爬山 and 登山?
- The former means he once lived in China. The latter doesn't make sense.
- The former makes sense. The latter doesn't.
- They are essentially synonyms. The only nuance between the two is that 爬 literally means crawl or climb and 登 means to step.
Sorry if I can't elaborate too much on the rules behind it; I speak Mandarin natively and never really studied the grammar (a shame, because I should).
Great answer ShotgunJohnny99! I'd add the following for #1:
The 过 signifies the past perfect tense, i.e. that the living happened entirely in the past. The latter phrase isn't proper, better would be "他在中国住了" although it sounds a bit bare and awkward without a period of time, such as "他在中国住了很多年“ (he lived in China for many years.)