Regional words in Romanian (Moldovan examples)
Dragi prieteni! Let's have a discussion of regional words in Romanian? Hopefully native speakers could contribute too. I will start. I grew up in Moldova, and now that I have been more exposed to standard Romanian through Duolingo, I notice some lexical differences from my Moldovan childhood. Here are some I have remarked, with the standard Romanian on the left and the Moldovan dialect on the right. Please let me know if these also occur in Romania.
struguri (grapes) = poame
castravete (cucumber) = pepene
prună (plum) = perje
zapadă (snow) = omăt
Also, sunt (I am, they are) = sînt; suntem (we are) = sîntem. As I understand, these forms are also in use in Romania, but in Moldova they are the standard ones.
Highly cultured Moldovans speak pretty standard Romanian (and nowadays many of them are educated in Romania) , but if you want an example of a strong version of the Moldovan manner of speaking like it's heard on the streets of Chișinău, listen here: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=izE42grIxzI&t=89s
A useful phrase: Limba moldovenească este un grai al limbii române. "Un grai" = a manner of speech, something less than a full-on dialect.
I see that sometimes even in Romanian editions. Pre-reform? But when I was living there they used the Cyrillic alphabet.
When I started studying Romanian in school, the letter â was not taught. If I'm not mistaken, even the word român was spelled with î. After 1989, the letter â was introduced (or reintroduced) in school along with the rule regarding how to use it. This confused many people and I know that even younger members of my family apply the rule completely backwards, with â at the beginning of words.
Pătlăgea/pătlăgele was used for roșie/roșii (tomato/tomatoes) in the countryside in Vrancea, a county in the South of the historical region of Moldova in Romania. In Muntenia (aka Țara Românească or Valahia/Wallachia) pătlăgele referred to the green tomatoes used to make murături (pickles).
Also in Vrancea I learnt perje, păpușoi, harbuz and poame. Regarding the latter, poamă/poame can also mean fruit/fruits in general in Romanian, and more colourfully "bad lot" or "light woman." :)
Aguridă was used to describe green unripen grapes in Vrancea. "Zeamă de aguridă" (sour grape juice) was used to make a soup sour. Which brings to mind "a chisa" as a probable regionalism for "a pisa" (to grind, to crush).
While "zăpadă" is the more common word for "snow," I wouldn't regard "omăt" as a regionalism. I'd expect most Romanians to know what it means, but that could be mostly from our literature.
For more of this I would recommend reading Romanian authors that were from Moldova: Ion Creangă, Mihail Sadoveanu, Vasile Alecsandri, Ionel Teodoreanu, etc.
The language is definitely Moldavian, although some of the words may be not just regionalisms but also archaic, depending on the epoch depicted.
I still remember my amazement at some of the words in the first chapter of Hotarul Nestatornic (The Fickle Border), the first novel in Teodoreanu's La Medeleni trilogy. I did not know what half of those words meant and I knew that I wasn't going to find them in our regular dictionary, and yet it did not make the book any less enjoyable. I was probably trying to imagine what the words could mean just from the context.
PhilipNikolayev, you are not right here. "O vânătă" was not "o pătlăgea" in Moldova. "O pătlăgea" or "o pătlăgică" are the moldavian versions of the romanian "o roșie", in English "a tomato". The term is referring mostly at a green tomato, but also to a red one. "Vinetele" (eggplants) does not have a moldavian equivalent, they are "vinete" in Moldova, also. I am speaking about the Romanian half of Moldova region. If anyone is from the Republic of Moldova can say how this term is used there.
I heard that a lot when we visited to that part of the world so i think its a thing that condemns them to know who is actually a natural Romanian speaker or are you a learner like how Americans tell when someone looks american but can actually be Mexican- american
the only Moldovan person (Chișinău) I ever talked to pronounced â like e.
mănânc = mănenc
PhilipNikolayev, "castravete" (cucumber) is not "pepene", is only "castravete". In Moldova "harbuz" is used for "pepene verde", i'm sorry I cannot put a image here to show you what fruit is it. It is a big green fruit with sweet red pulpa inside, known in English as water melon.