"You are my guest."
Translation:Du bist mein Gast.
1) (das) Gast does not exist. It is (der) Gast) (and rarely some people use (die) Gästin for a female guest).
2) With a verb like sein (and also werden, bleiben, heißen) you have a predicate nominative as the predicate noun is an attribute / definition of the subject of the sentence and not a (direct) object. Hence mein Gast = nominative.
thank you for your detailed explanation but in my limited understanding of english grammar i still dont understand why my guest is not accusative... i hate to tell you i dont have a clue what predicative nominative as the predicate noun is an attribute / definition of the subject of the sentence and not a (direct) object all means !!! but thank you so much for taking the time to comment
I'll put it like this: "you" and the "guest" are the same person. An object (which would demand an accusative or genitive case) is a thing that the subject does something with; even if I do something to myself, I'm both the doer and the object: "Ich (nominative) wasche mich (accusative)." ("I wash myself.") But in the sentence "I am a man", I am not doing anything to the man - I am the man. It's a mere juxtaposition (or attribute / definition, as quis_lib_duo said).
It's similar to describing nouns with an adjective as in "Der Apfel ist grün" ("The apple is green"): the apple and the green colour are "on the same level", there's no action involved, it's a mere description of how things are (not of things being done). In "Der Apfel ist mein Frühstück" ("The apple is my breakfast"), it's still the same principle: there's the apple, and there's my breakfast, they're identical. Nothing needs to be done in order to make the apple my breakfast, I just define the apple as breakfast.
Yep, that's right :) - "You invite my guest" = "Du lädst meinen Gast ein", with "du" = subject (nominative case) and "meinen Gast" = object (accusative case)
(added difficulty: "einladen" ("to invite") is a separable verb, so the prefix goes at the end of the sentence)
Not to talk too much about direct and indirect objects and cases and stuff, but if you look at "Ich gebe meinem Gast einen Apfel" ("I give an apple to my guest"), the thing something is being done with is primarily the apple: I give it. So it's the direct object and in accusative case. The guest is just the one the apple is given to: indirect object, dative case.
This may help: http://www.dailygrammar.com/Lesson-105-Predicate-Nominative.htm . It deals with predicative nominatives in the English language, but it's a good pointer to understand them in German as well.
at stepintime - thanks again... your example of giving my guest an apple is great ... can i ask you to clarify why in den menschen geht es gut the people are the indirect object? i am really battling to see it ...i thought they were the subject!!!... confusion, she reigns!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
Maybe it helps to think of it as "It is going well with/for those people".
From a grammatical point of view, "es" is the subject of the sentence, and in the English sentence you'd see why the people are an object: they're preceded by a preposition, "with/for". The idea is the same in the German sentence, but unfortunately you can't see it reflected by any preposition.
"den Menschen" is dative. Both accusative and dative are used for objects; cf. the "Ich gebe meinem Gast einen Apfel" example above: "meinem Gast" is the indirect object in dative case, "einen Apfel" is the direct object in accusative case.
"Es geht jemandem gut/schlecht" is used with dative, and I can't really explain why.
bless you for your honesty!! i thought if menschen was dative it would be dem rather than den which i associate with accusative but as i still have to get to the dative section dont stress... one day i guess more of the fog will clear!!!!!!!! i really DO appreciate all your time and kindness in helping me so much with the explanations.
You're welcome :)
"dem Menschen" is dative singular (for masculine and neuter words): "Es geht dem Menschen gut" ("The person/human is doing fine"), "Ich gebe dem Menschen einen Apfel" ("I give an apple to the person/human"). And "den Menschen" is dative plural as well as accusative singular: "Ich liebe den Menschen" ("I love the person/human"). Have fun discovering more of German grammar later on :)