"The museum is closed."
Translation:El museo está cerrado.
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Either "ser" (es) or "estar" (está) can be used with "cerrado" (or other past participles), but "estar" is used to talk about the state of something, as in our Duolingo sentence here--it's talking about the state of the museum, of its being closed.
Let's have these examples to show the difference between ser and estar with "cerrado":
• La puerta está cerrada" = "The door is closed" (is talking about the state of the door)
• La puerta es cerrada [por el guardia todos los días] = "The door is closed [by the guard every day]" (is passive; is talking about the action done to the door)
Both "ser" and "estar" can be translated as "to be" in English, but are used in different cases. "Ser" is used for inherent qualities of the subject, including nationality, definitions, characteristics, and occupation. "Estar" is used for conditional qualities, such as location and emotion. Since being closed is the condition of the museum, not an inherent quality, you would use "estar".
Hello! To answer your question, I see a lot of questions about when to use esta and when to use es, and what the difference is between them. So here is a basic guide to inform you about both!
Both esta and es mean "is", just used in different ways.
Esta is a permanent (in some cases, like when someone just says "a place is closed", it counts as permanent) statement. For example..
"El hotel esta cerrado"
This means the hotel is closed, and just mentioned before, even though it might be "non-permament", it is still esta.
Es is describing! For example..
"El taxi es rouge"
Though most are yellow, this means the taxi is red. The "es" is describing the taxi, which is red. Another example..
"El hotel es azul"
Same concept here! Es describes the hotel as blue.
Hope you enjoy and now understand between esta and es! I made up a sentence you can memorize to help you remember your esta and es!.. "Es describes the permanent esta statement."
Es is used in describing something. In, "the taxi is yellow," you would use "es". Esta is used to describe where something is. In, "the taxi is here," you would use "esta". Esta is also used to describe something that is only temporarily true. In, "the hotel is closed," you would use "esta".
I'm not sure what the difference is between the two sentences- el banco es cerrado and el hotel esta cerrado; except for one is talking about a bank , while the other is a hotel. Isn't it still talking about the state of both the bank and the hotel? Why use es for one and esta for the other?
This was a new concept for me, and I had to think about it. I do recognize that the "ser" sentence uses that past participle of the verb to describe (in the passive voice) an action. This is confusing because the past participle form can be used as adjectives and can describe states.
I came up with another example: "The chair is sanitized"--"La silla está desinfectada" "The chair is sanitized by the employees"--"La silla es desinfectada por los empleados."
In the first sentence, "sanitized" is the state of the chair, and it can be used as an adjective: a sanitized chair. In the second one, "sanitized" is a verb (past participle), and it's what the employees do to the chair. It's a passive construction, as tessbee says, and, at least in English, it's often better to use the active voice and say "The employees sanitize the chair".
No, that's not how it works.
The picture is meaningless--it's just there for visual variety, I guess, but it has no relevance to anything in the sentence or your answer.
The gender (and number) of the adjective must agree with the noun it modifies, not the person who is speaking. Here, the museum is what is closed, and "museo" is singular and masculine, so the adjective must be "cerrado".
"Este" means "this", as in "este libro" (this book). "Esta" also means this, but for feminine nouns, as in "esta casa" (this house).
"Está" means "is"--it's one of the present tense forms of the verb "estar", and it's the form for he, she, it, or usted. It is the "is" in "the museum is closed".
Both senses of "close" are from the same verb, "cerrar" (to close). "Cerrado" is the past participle and can be used as an adjective to say that something (the museum, a door, a box) is closed: el museo está cerrado, la caja está cerrada, una puerta cerrada (a closed box).
When I took Spanish (long ago), we were taught this expression: "En boca cerrada no entran moscas" (In a closed mouth the flies don't enter). Spanishdict.com translates it (very loosely) to "Silence is golden". The Google translator translates it as "Loose lips sink ships".
You can also use the past participle in the present or past perfect tenses:
- he cerrado las ventanas (I have closed the windows)
- ella había cerrado los ojos (she had closed her eyes)
Everything about the verb cerrar is here: https://www.spanishdict.com/conjugate/cerrar
Different devices have different ways of handling this.
Sometimes Duolingo displays accented letters underneath the box where you type, and you can just click on the ones you need. On my Mac keyboard, if I hold the vowel down for a second, I can then choose from accented alternatives that display. Before I figured that out, I learned that the Option key can be used for a lot of different diacritics (I did a web search for keyboard shortcuts for accented letters). There are also alternate keyboards (virtual) you can make available in various operating systems.
There's quite a long presentation of various methods at https://forum.duolingo.com/comment/35321961
Estar and ser are the infinitive forms of the verbs--they mean "to be". And está and es are the conjugated forms of estar and ser that mean"is" (the conjugation for "it is").
So some of the explanations refer to how to say "is" with the correct verb, and others refer to the infinitive, so that the explanation is more general and not just about saying "it is". For example, it could be about saying "I am", "they are", or "we are", which would all use different conjugations.
Whether an explanation uses estar and ser or está and es, it's talking about the same two verbs!