please correct me if I am wrong but is the difference between aquel and ese the proximity of the object you are referring to. Such as do you want this dress (este) or that dress we saw earlier in another store (aquel). Native Spanish speakers can you please chime in? Thanks
Not a native speaker but this website was helpful: "Both ese and aquel are rough equivalents of "that." Aquel is used in referring to entities that are further away in time, distance, or emotional sentiment than entities that use ese." https://www.thoughtco.com/demonstrative-adjectives-3079092
Actually... the difference between "esa" and "aquella" is very simple... you just need to consider how the hearer would refer to the object:
- if both speaker and hearer refer to the object as "that" then you use "aquel", "aquello" or "aquella"; http://dle.rae.es/?id=3M6wlMC
Espacial o temporalmente alejado de la persona que habla y de la persona con quien se habla.
- if the hearer would refer the object as "this" and the speaker as "that", the you use "ese", "eso" or "esa". http://dle.rae.es/?id=GOeWVLy
Que está cerca de la persona con quien se habla.
This is how in Portuguese we distinguish between "esse"/"essa" and "aquele"/"aquela".
Yes... that's more or less the concept as in "aquel" neither speaker or hearer are near the object/person in question.
In any case, translation to English stays with just "that one" as I think that "allá" can be added to Spanish sentence in order to emphasize the "over there" part.
Please notice that I'm just a Portuguese speaker and am explained as it can be done in Portuguese with the words "aquele" ("aquel" in Spanish) and "acolá"/"ali" ("allá" in Spanish).
If "that object" is near the hearer (but far from you, the speaker), then yes. If the object is far from both of the speaker and the hearer, then no (you use "aquel").
Please notice that this applies to objects, persons, or animals that are in visible... for objects that are just conversation references the distinction between "ese" and "aquel" is a bit different.
There's a simpler rule to transpose from English:
- If speaker refers to the object as "this", then you use "este", "esto" or "esta";
- If rule 1 does not apply, then evaluate if hearer can refer the object as "this", if so then use "ese", eso" or "esa";
- If neither 1 nor 2 applies (both speaker and hearer refer to object as "that"), then use "aquel", "aquelo" or "aquela".
As a native Portuguese, I evaluate like the above for the equivalent Portuguese words "este"/"esta", "ese"/"esa" and "aquele"/"aquela".