Literally you are correct. However, I suspect the 'me' part is really optional in everyday spoken language. Perdoneme should also be acceptable here.
Not quite, perdone is a verb in the imperative, as in "Pardon me", whereas perdón is a noun, as in "I beg your pardon" I guess.
Usage wise, yes, they're interchangeable, but with perdone you have to bear in mind whether you are addressing one or several people, formally or informally, and use perdone/perdona/perdonen/perdonad accordingly.
To turn a Spanish third person formal and singular verb (whose infinitive ends in -ar) into a command, the "-a" gets changed into a "-e.""Perdone" is the command form of the verb "perdonar." For this reason, the Spanish sentence is odd because it's a request that is simultaneously a command.
In English, this is a grammatical formality and "Pardon me, sir ... " is allowable, but is it a grammatical formality in Spanish or is it bad Spanish syntax?
It is a grammatical formality in Spanish (and French and Italian) as well
Seem to be used interchangeably, but I'm not a native Spanish speaker.
"A qué hora…" is "[at] what time…?". You use the a when you want to know what time 'someone does something' or what time 'something happens/does something'. For ex: "What time does the bus leave?" = ¿A qué hora sale el autobús? You may notice that to answer this question, you'll also use the preposition
a: *El autobús sale
a la una/
a las dos (etc.)"
• ¿Qué hora
Es la una/
Son las dos/etc. (What time
is it? --> It
is one o'clock/It'
s two o'clock/etc.)
A qué hora sale el autobús? --> El autobús sale
a las dos ([At] What time does the bus leave? --> The bus leaves