"An interesting problem."
Translation:Un problema interesante.
The patterns are more complex than just -o and -a, and there are a lot of exceptions even when there are patterns. Sometimes a word has been shortened, like la mapa and la foto. Most words that end in -ma are masculine because they were borrowed from Greek. Nouns that end in accented vowels are often masculine: (á, é, í, ó, ú).
Nouns that end in -e are more often masculine, but there are a lot of feminine ones too.
Nouns that end in -d and -z are usually feminine. Nouns that end in other consonants are usually masculine.
I like to look up the history of nouns that are exceptions, because it helps me remember better. Wiktionary is pretty good: https://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/foto#Etymology_12
but sometimes it pays to look further: https://blogs.transparent.com/spanish/word-origins/
Much more here: https://www.spanishdict.com/guide/masculine-and-feminine-nouns
What great ideas; thank you. I've only used the dictionary for this type of info (origins), so I'm glad to have other resources.
A word that disturbs me so much is Vestido. A masculine gender assignment - it's a dress (!!), for Heaven's sake. I think I'll go check that out in one of your sources.
They only seem like many, because we don't notice all the words that match the -o/a rule. The reason why some words don't match that rule is often that the word was adopted from a different language, gender and all. Also, some words are really abbreviation whose full forms have a different suffix.
you use una when the word is feminine. In Spanish they use two words for "the" which are "el" and "la". Their words have two grammatical genders- Masculine and feminine. For example "el pan" and "la manzana". The same goes "and"- un/uno and una. Usually words ending in "a" are feminine, but there are exceptions- "uno problema" is one
Same, on my post-it I have masculine exceptions rather feminine exceptions. Suffix -ma comes below my Greek loan words which are all masculine. -ma is joined by -ta + -pa. I recall these as, Sufijo (suffix) -ma-ta-pa. I simply find Matapa easier to remember than Mapata which is in alphabetical order. Claro