"El niño quiere ser jugador de fútbol."
Translation:The boy wants to be a soccer player.
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You don't use "un" or "una" with an occupation unless you further describe it.
"El niño quiere ser jugador de fútbol" - He wants to be a soccer player.
"El niño quiere ser un jugador de fútbol talentoso" - He wants to be a talented soccer player.
"El niño quiere ser un jugador de fútbol que gane todos los partidos" - He wants to be a soccer player who wins all the games.
I think you were marked wrong because you wrote, "The boy wants to be football player". You should have written, "The boy wants to be a football player." In many languages, the indefinite article is never used before a profession. In that sentence, the indefinite article is obligatory in English.
The career of any sportsman or woman is short. Many actors leave their profession after a few years. The career of a conductor can last for more than fifty years. It would be confusing to use "estar" for gymnasts and reality TV stars but "ser" for composers and hairdressers. Learning languages is hard enough. Please do not give the Spanish Academy ideas to make it harder.
The idea that "estar" is for temporary things and "ser"for permanent ones is very misleading. "ser" is used for anything that identifies the person. "estar" is used for how you feel and where you are and there are more differences: https://www.thoughtco.com/verbs-meaning-to-be-ser-estar-3078314
Yes, you don’t use it after the verb “to be” to indicate the subject’s nationality, religion, profession, etc. https://www.thoughtco.com/singular-indefinite-articles-3079098