what ARE these things? adverbs? adjectives? how do i use them? i cant get a straight answer but it sure would be nice to add them to my vocabulary. can someone explain this a bit preferably with some examples?
on a side note i came across this sentence:
Translation: 빨리 큰 공을 만드세요. "Make a big ball quickly."
now the verb for "make" is 만들다. i thought final ㄹ was removed when adding ㄴ or ㅂ니다 so what is the unexplained logic behind removing it in this sentence?
EDIT: also while im asking things, what are some examples of appropriate use of 제가 vs 저는?
어때,어떻,어떻게 these are all forms of the verb 어떻다 which kind of means like "be in a certain way" (or "how" lol) i've never actually seen someone use "어떻" by itself. "어때?" is how you usually ask you're mates how they are or if the live octopus they're eating is ok (it's pretty informal for how are you/how is it?)
어떻게 helps you ask how to do something so usually it's before some kind of verb. In Totoro I remember he doesn't know how to use the umbrella so Satsuki says "이렇게 쓰는 거야" (use it like this) the question you could've asked with would've been "어떻게 쓰는 거야?" (how do i use this)
With 이렇,이래 they come from "이렇다" sort like "it's like this" - I think it's helpful to contrast it with "그렇다" and "그래" which is "it's like that" - so usually that gets said as a confirmation "응 그래~!" essentially what you're agreeing with is there by the speaker not by you. 이렇다 i think is more for stuff that happens near you, so in the sentence above "이렇게 쓰는 거야" (use it like this) Satsuki has the umbrella in her hand that's why it's 이렇게, if Totoro was working it out and she was pointing then i becomes 그렇게
hope that helps!
not really. i still do not know the difference between 어때,어떻, and 어떻게. i still dont know the difference between (이)렇,(이)래. i still dont know if they are adjectives or adverbs or what. i still dont know how to use them in a sentence.
어떻다 is the root word for "be like, be how". It is an adjective, also known as "descriptive verbs". From what I can tell, it is a very common question word that can be used in a variety of contexts. The definition from National Institute of Korean Language (KIKL) states:
Being such in one's thoughts, feelings, state, situation, etc.
어떻 I don't think is a real word by itself, it is the stem of the root word 어떻다.
For example, a general use could be asking someone how something is:
당신의 의견은 어떻습니까? = What is your opinion?
Notice the regular conjugation in the question -(ㅂ/습)니까 form, as many other (descriptive) verbs take. They are asking what your (당신의) opinion (의견) is like or how it is.
"명란은 어떻다?" "짜다." = "How is the pollack?" "It's salty."
In this sentence you are asking how the pollack (명란) is, i.e. how it tastes. Notice this is in the written/diary form, so since 어떻다 is an adjective it can be written as its root form.
어때 is simply the polite form conjugation of 어떻다, where as is it would be the casual form, and the polite form would add -요.
루스는 어때? = How is Ruth?
This sentence is in casual speech, which asks how Ruth (presumably another friend) is doing. How is she? To be more polite, you would just add 요: 어때요?
어떻게 is an adverb, and as mentioned in the Adverbs 2 lesson, an adverb can be made from regular verbs by adding -게 to the stem (어떻 in this case). This is not true for all adverbs though, so you will need to know when this applies, however if you see -게 attached to a verb you know then you can likely assume it is the adverb form.
어떻게 들려요? = How does it sound?
Literally, the placement of 어떻게 is where the regular adverb would go to answer the question. "좋게 들려요." (It sounds good.) could be an answer to this question where 좋게 fills in the "blank" adverb holder 어떻게 (notice the -게 attached to the stem of 좋다 here!).
어떤 is another useful word to know. I have seen it translated as "what kind/type?". For instance:
어떤 음식을 좋아해요? = What kind of food do you like? 어떤 요리책을 찾아요? = What kind of cookbook are you looking for?
Similar to its adverb counterpart 어떻게, 어떤 is a placeholder for the adjective which describes the noun. "매운 음식을 좋아해요." (I like spicy food) is a possible answer for the first question, 매운 (spicy) replaces 어떤 to answer the question.
As maracuja mentioned, 이래 is from 이렇다 and is the conjugated form you would use in casual speech, and to what you would add -요 to be more polite. It is similar to 어때 in that sense, and it is also an adjective. KIKL defines it as:
(for a state, appearance, nature to be) Like this.
It is also similar to the word 그래(요) = (it is) like that, which you may have notice people use it as another way to say "Yes" or "OK". 그 = that, 이 = this as you likely know.
Like 어떻다, there are many possible ways to use this word it seems. For example, a form of 이렇다 can be used to answer a question that has a form of 어떻다.
"이렇게 들려요!" = It sounds like this! (perhaps you then proceed to make a similar noise to what it/that sounds like)
"어떤 요리책을 찾아요?"
"이런 요리책을 찾아요." = I am looking for this kind of cookbook. (as you proceed to show the bookstore associate the kind of book on your phone, for example)
이렇다 and 그렇다 are those kinds of words that can take on many different meanings depending on the context, but you need to keep in mind that they mostly boil down to something being like "this" or "that".
제가 vs 저는
They're essentially the same root word (저) but 제가 is with the subject marker and 저는 is with the topic marker. With 제가 you are tied to a particular verb, but 저는 having the topic marker makes the whole sentence about you ...
남자는 제가 입니다 - the man is me
저는 남자가 입니다 - i am the man
That's how I understand it anyway hopefully it's right :D
Unfortunately, both sentences you've translated are wrong..there are no such sentences, it's completely grammatically wrong, that i can tell as a native Korean speaker..
I am the man = the man is me - 제가(me) 그 남자(the man) 입니다(is).
Native speaker do not tend to use phrase like 입니다. it is too formal and mostly used for writings, instead 이에요 is used more frequently for oral. 저는 usually used for express your condition on things or about yourself (status like age, emotion etc. )
저는30살 입니다/이에요 I am 30 years old
저는 괜찮습니다. I am fine
저는 멋진 남자입니다(이에요).I am a handsome man.
I wish i would explain more sentences, but my poor English cause me a lot of time to organize these English sentences XD. hopefully the information is helpful for you.
만들다 is an irregular ㄹ verb, containing something called a 받침 which from what I remember is the little ㄹ thingy you potentially get rid of when you want to say certain things. I'd suggest having a read of this as a start as it's quite a long subject :D