"What time is it now?"
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Yes, there are often sound elements as Kanji are adapted Chinese characters. Interestingly, in other Chinese languages than Mandarin and in completely unrelated languages as Vietnamese and Zhuang very often whole characters are used only by their pronunciation, completely unrelated to their original meaning.
○点鐘 is within Japanese vocaburary as a sign of hour but it's not daily used. In Japanese it is a historic word for an naval hour unit, which was notified on ringing（点） a bell （鐘） per half an hour. Today ringing a bell is mostly celemonial.
From my (limited) experience with Japanese Kanji the stroke similarity between characters is somewhat helpful for meaning correlation and very deceiving for pronunciation. If you don't know the word then it's likely not pronounced as you would expect. But if you're really expecting the pronunciation not to match the character then it will, just for the sake of it :)
了 is used to show past tense but in this sentence you put 现在 and 了 together which is inappropriate because it's not clear if it's in past or present so don't use 了. You can say “现在几点？”。We can't write 吗 in the end as 几 is already here as the question particle. Hope it helped.
This isn't quite correct; "现在几点了?" is fine. There's no contradiction between 现在 and 了 because 了 does not correspond to the English past tense. 了 can be used to indicate a lot of things, for example see here: https://resources.allsetlearning.com/chinese/grammar/Uses_of_%22le%22. One of the things it can indicate is the completion of an action, and often when we have a sentence in the past tense in English, it represents a completed action, so 了 is used. In this sense, 了 is often associated with the past tense in English, but it's not the same thing, and it has a lot of other functions too.
In "现在几点了?", 了 is being used with a different function. In this case, 了 is used to indicate or emphasize a change of state. Including 了 can also serve to soften the question slightly, making it less blunt. In spoken English, a common way to achieve the distinction between "现在几点?" and "现在几点了?" is through changing the word order and/or stress. "现在几点?" corresponds to "What time is it?" or "What time is it now?" with "now" unstressed, while "现在几点了?" corresponds to "Now what time is it?" or "What time is it now?", with "now" stressed.
As an example scenario, imagine that you and a friend are rushing to catch a train departing at 2:00. You arrive at the train station, and you don't know what time it is. You ask him "现在几点?", simply asking what the current time is ("What time is it?"). It's 1:55 and you wait for a while, for what feels like much longer than 5 minutes. You then ask him "现在几点了?", since the time has changed from a previous reference state ("Now what time is it?").
By itself, it means "clock".
点钟 can mean "o'clock", for example 四点钟 is 4 o'clock. 几点钟 means "what time". In both these cases, you can usually drop 钟 and the meaning is still the same. So 现在几点钟 and 现在几点 both mean "What time is it now". The latter is just a little bit less formal.
They're generally interchangeable, with 几点 being maybe just slightly less formal than 几点钟. Other than that, the only context that comes to my mind where "几点钟" might be preferred over "几点" is an extremely contrived one, where "点" may also be used as a classifier for ideas and it's ambiguous whether "几点" means "what time" or "how many ideas".