"Matěj slíbil, že se Rusku pomstí."
Translation:Matěj promised that he would retaliate against Russia.
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It is mstít, not mslít.
The verb is not always reflexive. The se is comes there as the accusative of the pronoun myself/oneself,"mstít sebe" or "pomstít sebe". To avenge myself, to vindicate myself.
You can also take a revenge on someone else's behalf, avenge someone else, vindicate someone else. Mstít někoho, pomstít někoho.
If you include the dative, against whom you revenge, then it only likely works as reflexive: mstít se někomu, pomstít se někomu.
No "proti" is used here, the dative case expresses that.