"Can you help me put this table over there?"
Translation:¿Me ayudas a poner esta mesa allá?
I've seen some conflicting takes on trying to describe the differences among these words, and I'm not sure it's entirely consistent across different regions, but the following is the general sense I've pieced together from talking with a number of native speakers over the years. The clearest version (which I'm more or less quoting here) was from a Costa Rican.
There are two different distinctions in the here/there words in Spanish.
The first is similar to English. "aquí, ahí, allí" roughly map onto "here", "there, but pretty close, like close enough to point to", and "there, far away". You also see this same near/far distinction with este (this), ese (that, nearby), and aquel (that, far away).
And then there's the distinction with acá and allá, which have a sense of motion. (And AFAIK allá erases the near/far difference that you get with ahí/allí and eso/aquel.) If you're just saying "He is here!" then "¡Él está aquí!" But if you want to tell somebody "Come here!" most dialects will choose "¡Ven acá!", rather than "¡Ven aquí!"
Since we're talking about literally moving something in this sentence, allí might not be strictly "wrong", but most speakers in most circumstances would use allá. Maybe if we're just moving it across the room, ahí might be appropriate.
It maybe disallowed because the English use "can you ..." when they really mean "would you ...". We are not really asking if the person is physically able to do it (puedes), we are asking them if they are willing to do it. In English if you really want to ask if someone is physically able to do something, you would generally be more specific than "Can you ...".
schuppel, there are five possible demonstrative distances in Spanish with "allá" and "allí" being two of them and "aquí", "acá", and "ahí" being the other 3. They do not change based on gender of the object. To learn how to use each of them check out http://www.spanishdict.com/answers/241532/alli-y-alla andhttps://learnenglishspanishonline.webs.com/apps/forums/topics/show/7691987
The version described in that, where distance from speaker and listener are both used, is slightly different from the what I got from the Costa Rican friend I mentioned in a comment above, although it works out fairly similar in use -- in a sentence where the speaker and listener are taken to be at different distances, you might expect the verb to make a connection between the locations of the speaker and listener -- hence acá and allá end up with that "sense of motion".
There seem to be some dialect differences with this stuff.
What I was taught (by a native speaker from Costa Rica), is:
Aquí and acá are both "here", but the latter has a sense of motion. So, "Estamos aquí," we are here, but, "Ven acá, por favor," come here please. Because in the latter, it's implied that you're not currently here, you need to come over here.
Ahí is there, but close by, probably close enough to gesture at. Allí is there, far away, probably out of sight, or at least significantly farther than an ahí that's already established in the converstation. And then allá has a similar difference as acá, where it conveys motion. "Vete allá, por favor."
I've also seen some people report thinking of these in terms of the location of both the speaker and listener, though the details don't seem to be super consistent.
Somebody in this thread ( https://spanish.stackexchange.com/questions/1728/differences-betwen-ah%C3%AD-all%C3%AD-and-all%C3%A1 ) mentions that acá and allá were at one time used similarly to the archaic English demonstrative pronouns of motion "hither" and "thither". Which definitely fits with what my Costa Rican friend taught me. "Come hither. Go thither."
You can't put the pronoun in the middle like that. Those clitic pronouns start out as an element of the verb whose object they are (so, "puedes ayudarme"), and then if you're going to relocate them (which is mandatory in some cases, optional in others, and forbidden for a few cases like the positive imperative) then they need to move to the left of the conjugated verb. So you'd have to say "me puedes ayudar". You can never strand the clitic in the middle of the verb structure.
You may find the examples in SpanishDict useful: https://www.spanishdict.com/translate/ponerse
The closest thing to a literal translation of "ponerse" is probably "to put on (oneself)", but it also is used colloquially as if a mood was an article of clothing -- e.g. "no te pongas triste", don't be sad -- and the range of metaphorical thinking gets even weirder from there.