In general, usage seems to be with -taH for temporary locations (e.g. a book which is on the table right now but might be on the floor this evening) and without -taH for more permanent locations (e.g. the restaurant which is opposite the town hall not just today but will stay there).
This course is not completely consistent in this (sometimes using -taH for permanent locations, sometimes omitting it for temporary locations), and will usually accept both versions in English-to-Klingon translations. (If not, report the missing version so that it can be added.)
Isn't there a word combo where one is for speaking things and the other is for stuff that's rather less vocal?
And, I'll be honest, learning Klingon capitalization probably isn't gonna happen for one very simple reason: there is no way to connect the sounds to the capital letters, especially since some letters have both capital and lower-case versions. Unless we get a vocal part of the Klingon lessons, a way to hear as well as read, I think I'm gonna screw that up forever.
Yes - ghaH is singular (he, she, him, her) and chaH is plural (they, them, capable of speech).
For what it’s worth, the only letter that comes in both upper and lower case is q/Q.
(As long as you consider gh ch tlh individual letters — H on its own is always capitalised.)
Yeah, I'm still gonna have a difficult time with that. I'd memorize those more easily if I had sounds to go with them. It's what helped with Japanese in college, making Hiragana and Katakana sound correct (especially since my teacher spelled the letters funky, where 'chi' was 'ti', though that actually makes sense, given the other letters, but that's a different subject...). Point is, Klingon definitely needs an audio component when it comes to learning; I spoke some of it to some friends who already knew it, and I was pronouncing everything ALL wrong...well, not all, but I wasn't emphasizing certain syllables properly. It's like trying to learn karate from a book; you're just plain gonna do it wrong until someone shows you how to properly apply what you've learned.