https://www.duolingo.com/profile/MABBY

Caldo/ Freddo

Duolingo has taught us that we should use the verb "avere" or "fare" with these two adjectives. For instance:

  • Fa caldo oggi It is hot today
  • Ho freddo I am cold (a male speaker )

But is essere ever used, or is that only with non-human subjects?

  • L'acqua è calda The water is hot
  • Il clima è freddo The climate is cold

"L'acqua ha calda" or "L'acqua fa calda" just seems wrong, for some reason.

How about with other related adjectives? Ignore avere or fare there?

  • La temperatura è tepida The temperature is warm

or is it

  • La temperatura fa tepida

(I still think that you match the gender, where possible)

June 8, 2018

2 Comments


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/CivisRomanus

Duolingo has taught us that we should use the verb "avere" or "fare" with these two adjectives. For instance:
- Fa caldo oggi It is hot today
- Ho freddo I am cold

In these sentences, caldo and freddo are not adjectives, but nouns, which are the direct object of the verb:

  • Fa caldo = literally: (It) makes heat.

  • Ho freddo = literally: I have cold.

Adjectives can be used only after copular verbs, such as essere, sembrare, apparire, diventare, etc., which do not take a direct object, like avere and fare do, but an adjectival predicate (i.e. an adjective), or a nominal predicate (a noun), or a pronominal predicate (a pronoun) or, to a very limited extent, an adverbial predicate (an adverb):

  • L'acqua è calda. = The water is hot. (adjectival predicate)

  • Il clima sembra freddo. = The climate seems cold. (adjectival predicate)

  • La temperatura è diventata fredda. = The temperature has become cold. (adjectival predicate)

Instead, when using fare or avere only a noun or a pronoun (i.e. a direct object) can follow:

  • Io ho caldo. = literally: I have heat. (→ I am hot)

  • Lei ha sonno. = literally: She has sleepiness. (→ She is sleepy)

However, the reflexive form of fare, farsi, means "to become", "to turn" (it is a synonym of diventare), and therefore is a copular verb, as well, and can take an adjectival predicate:

  • La temperatura si è fatta fredda. = The temperature has turned cold. (adjectival predicate)
June 9, 2018

https://www.duolingo.com/profile/Bruna115619

I don't know if I'm right but to talk about the temperature : Objects - essere: L'acqua è calda (The water is hot) | Il forno è caldo (The oven is hot). People - avere: Ho freddo (I'm cold) | Ha caldo (He's hot). And when the subject is undetermined, and you want to talk about how is the weather like you use - fare : Fa freddo (It's cold) Fa caldo (It's hot)
But notice... To talk about other things related to weather you use the verb essere: It's windy (È ventoso) | It's cloudy (È nuvoloso). In that case "La temperatura è tepida" (The temperature is warm) it's the right one. When you say "La temperatura fa tepida" you're saying "The temperature does warm", literally translated. Doesn't exist. I hope I helped

June 8, 2018
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