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  5. "Your face is handsome."

"Your face is handsome."

Translation:'IH qablIj.

June 11, 2018

9 Comments


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/LeeGOgletree

Someone will find my question worthy of response: 'IH qablIj, and 'IH qablIj'e' , are both acceptable answers to this question. So what is the exact function of the 'e', in the 2nd option (please don't use the word, "topic")?

And yes, I am getting a copy of The Klingon Dictionary.


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/jdmcowan

In such a case, it serves as an emphasizer. "YOUR FACE (as opposed to something else) is beautiful."

I like to teach that the -'e' suffix has four distinct (though related and slightly overlapping) grammatical functions.
1) To emphasize a noun in place (an object where the object belongs or a subject where the subject belongs - this is well described in The Klingon Dictionary).
2) To indicate an explicit subject in a "pronoun as to be" construction (in which case it always follows the "pronoun as to be" - this is well described in TKD).
3) To mark a topic separate from any explicit subject or object (in TKD Dr. Okrand calls it a topic marker, but he describes it more like a focus marker and has agreed when asked if it was really a focus marker and not a topic marker - however, he has used it like a topic marker in a couple sentences and such usage should occur before the OVS part of the sentence).
4) To explicitly mark the head noun of a -bogh phrase (which goes on such noun in place, but doesn't so much emphasize it, but rather makes it the noun that the phrase describes - this usage is not described in TKD, but began with the speakers and I don't think it has ever been used this way by Dr. Okrand, though I do believe he has agreed that it is a clever way to do it).

One could argue that there is a fifth usage which is to move an object even further to the front of a sentence (i.e. before the adverb even). This is described in the addendum to TKD (Section 6.7, top of p.180 in the paper copies), but I claim that it is really an example of 3 above.


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/DavidTrimb3

Okrand has used 4 in paq'batlh at least once: joqwI’’e’ cha’bogh qeylIS which banner Kahless marches under. I stopped looking once I found this one.


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/jdmcowan

Good to know. Thanks.


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/LeeGOgletree

Thank you, Sir. I shall try to understand all of that.


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/jdmcowan

Don't work too hard on understanding and memorizing all of that. The first sentence answers your question. The rest you will learn as you go along.


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/LeeGOgletree

Many thanks. And now I know where to start.


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/LeeGOgletree

your face is the "topic," or the "focus..." The beautiful thing that the sentence refers to.


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/Max_Matthews

The emphasis on the noun, in this phrase only the one.

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