"I want that hat."
Translation:Yo quiero ese sombrero.
I've often contrived complicated memory tricks for stuff like this. The utility of them depends on how many mental hoops you like to jump through while trying to remember, and just how your own brain works.
For this one I just note that the word "this" has a single "t" and "that" has two. So, if the letters are said to cancel each other, then two "t"s make none, just like" ese" has none. However, the corresponding Spanish word for "this" also has only one "t" since there isn't another to cancel it.
So, in summary, "t"s cancel. It works for me.
Ese is masculine singular. As an adjective, it can go before a m.s. noun (Quiero ese sombrero. I want that hat.) or it can stand for a m.s. noun as a pronoun (Quiero ese. I want that (or that one, referring to the hat.)
Eso is a neuter (or neutral) pronoun. It can't be used as an adjective before a noun. It can refer to and stand for something undefined, a situation, a circumstance (¡Eso es horrible! That is horrible!) or it can be used when you can't tell what an object's gender is (¿Qué es eso? What is that?).
So in summation, what I am seeing is: este = this (masculine, adjective, e.g. I want this hat. Yo quiero este sombrero.) esta = this (feminine, adjective, e.g. I want this jacket. Yo quiero esta chaqueta.) ese = that (masculine, adjective, e.g. I want that hat. Yo quiero ese sombrero.) esa = that (feminine, adjective, e.g. I want that jacket. Yo quiero esa chaqueta.) eso = that (neutral, non-adjective, e.g. What is that? Qué es eso?)
Yes, aquel sombrero should work here, but its use does depend on context (which we do not know here, of course). Note that before a singular masculine noun it is aquel (not aquello) but before a singular feminine noun aquella.
According to this ThoughtCo article, aquel/aquella means "that" but refers:
to entities that are further away in time, distance, or emotional sentiment …
than would be indicated by using ese.
So, perhaps if you are discussing a hat you saw previously somewhere in a shop in town then you might say
Yo quiero aquel sombrero.
Aquel/la used directly before a noun is an adjective (pointing to or indicating a particular entity). It has four forms:
That » aquel, aquella
Those » aquellos, aquellas.
The singular form aquello is a neuter pronoun only and not an adjective.
As Aquello is a neuter demonstrative pronoun it is NOT used directly before a noun but is used stand-alone, representing an unidentified or unknown noun or to refer to a concept, or idea. Esto and eso are also neuter pronouns - they are not masculine.
Here is an article on demonstrative adjectives for you to read, Dring-Master. "This" and "that" as used in English as demonstrative adjectives are used in much the same way in Spanish. "This" = points to something right here; "that" = something further away.
As adjectives they point to or indicate a particular object but the meaning is relative: "I want this hat" (in my hand), "I don't want that hat" (indicating the one perhaps on the shelf). "This" usually indicates the closest object relative to where "that" other object is.
But you must follow the Spanish rules for gender and number (plural/singular) that applies to most adjectives.
So esta, "this", is feminine and goes before a singular feminine noun, eg, esta mesa, "this table".
Ese, "that", is masculine and goes before a singular masculine noun, eg, ese vestido, "that dress".
One difference between Spanish and English is that Spanish has two forms for "that" - ese and aquel. See my forum post above that discusses aquel.
- Use ese directly before a singular masculine noun, the object that you are specifically indicating: ese sombrero, "that hat" over there (and not this hat - este sombrero - just here).
- Use eso by itself to refer to something you cannot identify, hence you do not name the "thing" and also therefore the gender is unknown: ¿Qué es eso? (pointing to something unknown) » "What is that?"
Ese is a demonstrative adjective (as is este) and as with most Spanish adjectives must match the gender and number of the noun it precedes - masculine and singular in this case. It is one of the adjectives that is placed before the noun, rather than after as is the case with most descriptive adjectives.
Eso is a singular neuter pronoun, as is esto / "this", and being pronouns they entirely replace another noun or noun phrase and, being neuter, the "thing" indicated is unknown or not identified. If it is identifiable then you must use a pronoun that has the same gender and number as the noun it replaces (it is illogical otherwise to say it is neuter.)
Porque no quiero este sombrero pero quiero ese sombrero »
"Because I don't want this hat" (here in my hand), "but I want that hat" (there on that shelf).
"This" and "that" are used to differentiate between two things (relative to your position) and aren't really interchangeable.
Tú and usted are pronouns meaning "you" in English. Spanish actually has five pronouns for "you": this Spanish Dictionary article explains them.
Su and tu are possessive adjectives used to define which object you are referencing (eg, her car, your house). This Spanish Dictionary article should help you.