Could someone answer a general query I have on possessives? If both the possessor and the items possessed are plural does it change? For instance,does asztaljuk mean both 'their table' AND 'their tables'?. Somehow 'azok az ö asztaljuk' doesn't sound quite right. I'd appreciate your advice
his/her table az ő asztala
their table az ő asztaluk (exception here, ő instead of ők, only the possesive shows it is plural)
his/her tables az ő asztalai
their tables az ő asztalaik
And there is more. The policemen's table a rendőrők asztala (here rendőrök already shows policemen is plural, the possessed thing does not show it.
(In singular, it would be the policeman's table, a rendőr asztala. )
the policeman's tables a rendőr asztalai
The policemen's tables a rendőrők asztalai
That is an excellent question. I hope I won’t confuse you! :D
If the possessed thing is in plural, we have a whole different set of suffixes (so we don’t just use the ’k’ ending plural and then add the ’m’ or ’d’ to express possessivity: ’my bags’ is NOT ’táskákom’ :) ).
If the word ends with a consonant *, the possible endings are:
1Sg.: jaim jeim aim eim
2Sg.: jaid jeid aid eid
3Sg.: jai jei ai ei
1Pl.: jaink jeink aink eink
2Pl.: jaitok jeitek aitok eitek
3Pl.: jaik jeik aik eik
Which one do we use out of the 4? The A or E version depends on vowel-harmony of course. But unfortunately, similarly to the 3Sg (and 3Pl) possessive (when we possess a singular thing), not much help can be given about wether we use the version starting with a ’J’ or the one without a ’J’. ** And of course if a word likes to drop or shorten it’s last vowel (like it does in plural for example), then it will do that with plural possessives as well.
asztal = table
my tables, your tables...:
az asztalaim, az asztalaid, az asztalaik, az asztalaink, az asztalaitok, az asztalaik
nap = day
my days, your days...:
a napjaim, a napjaid, a napjai, a napjaink, a napjaitok, a napjaik
dolog = thing (vowel-dropping)
my things, your things...:
a dolgaim, a dolgaid, a dolgai, a dolgaink, a dolgaitok, a dolgaik
tehén = cow (vowel-shortening)
my cows, your cows...:
a teheneim, a teheneid, a tehenei, a teheneink, a teheneitek, a teheneik
If the word ends with a vowel, or if it ends with an A or an E (those will become Á and É respectively (like in almost every case)), then the suffixes are the following:
Examples: betű = letter (like the alphabet)
my letters, your letters...:
betűim, betűid, betűi, betűink, betűitek, betűik
táska = bag
my bags, your bags...:
a táskáim, a táskáid, a táskái, a táskáink, a táskáitok, a táskáik
kutya = dog
my dogs, your dogs...:
kutyáim, kutyáid, kutyái, kutyáink, kutyáitok, kutyáik
medve = bear
my bears, your bears...:
medvéim, medvéid, medvéi, medvéink, medvéitek, medvéik
*words ending with an ’i’ are rare, but they also fall in this category, and so do so called V-stem words, e.g. horse = ló -> lovaik = their horses; lake = tó -> tavaink = our lakes; word = szó -> szavaid = your words
**I’m pretty sure that all words ending with C Cs Dz Dzs S Sz Z Zs Gy J Ly Ny Ty H use the non-J one, but the rest is quite 50-50, you kinda have to learn which one word-by-word. :( But the good news is even we mess up sometimes. :D This also means that it's not your fault that you got 'their table' wrong, it's 'asztaluk', without a 'J'. And 'Those are their tables' translates as 'Azok az ő asztalaik'.
Thank you for your helpful and comprehensive explanations. I can see why Duolingo doesn't cover plural forms in their explanation. Suffixes in Hungarian are really hard. Anyhow I think I'm on top of it now. And if I get stuck I'll revert to 'Azok az asztalok az övék'
Interestingly in the "tips and notes" section on possessives, Duo shows 3PL 'asztaljuk' as 'their table' !!??
Perhaps the creators of this course speak a specific dialect of Hungarian. Some people do say it like that.
Question - does this mean multiple people own the one bag? Or does this mean each bag belonging to multiple people?
It looks like it is one bag owned by multiple people - but this catches me out a little bit, as it is rare to hear this... (Maybe if a group of you put a bag into a coat-check and then it wasn't there when you went to collect it...)
Testing out is fun, when correct answers are rejected.
Seems like not many people made it into or through the cases sections and therefore here is so much missing.
Report report report.... :-|