En Argentina no decimos "hace sol" o "hace viento", decimos "hay sol" y "hay viento". Para el resto sí usamos "hace": hace frío, hace calor.
I don´t see how we can regard either "¿Hace sol hoy?" or "Hace soleado hoy?" as wrong. They are clearly idiomatic ways to express the sentence in Spanish and, as far as I can see, they are both valid.
I suppose then we are looking for an equivalent idiomatic expression in English. It seems that "Is it sunny today?" and "Is today sunny?" should both be accepted.
I am confident however that a word-for-word translation isn´t appropriate. For example "Does it make sun today?" or "Does it do sunny today" are certainly not how we say it in English, and I suspect "¿Está soleado hoy?" may be just as peculiar in Spanish. Perhaps an experienced Spanish speaker could advise us.
"Hace soleado hoy?"
That sentence is ungrammatical. Look at both sentences in depth:
- "Hace sol hoy": Here you have a verb, a noun, and an adverb.
- "Hace soleado hoy?": Here you have a verb, an adjective, and an adverb. Now ask yourself, what is the adjective describing? It's not describing hoy, and hacer is impersonal, meaning, there's no subject, so it's describing absolutely nothing.
The construction always is hacer + noun when talking about the weather.
Did you read ProfesorAntonnio's response above? I believe he is an experienced Spanish speaker. :-)
Unfortunately, his comment is gone.
But see this: HTTP://STUDYSPANISH.COM/GRAMMAR/LESSONS/WTHREXP https://www.fluentu.com/blog/spanish/spanish-weather-expressions/ by CONSTANCECHASE
Sol is "sun", yes. When talking about weather, Spanish usually goes for "Hace [noun]."