the staticness/dynamicness is a matter of relativity not absoluteness. also estar is used for not permanent stuff. estar was the original to be verb, but ser came around to imply staticness, derived from the verb to stand. the closest translation i can think of in english would be "habitual be" but even that's not a direct translation as we see here.
in this case, night & day are seen as fleeting more than they are seen as habitual. like we usually have to plan on restricted sunlight or restricted darkness which is why estar gets used, because it's not assumed that you've adapted your entire life around the darkness of night & the brightness of day.
Esta translate (most of the time) to 'it is' or 'is' . I think this would be better translated to 'it is dark in the night time'( I think this would be marked wrong to dramatic of a change from the original sentence) while hace(Congregation of a 'hacer' to make)would translate to 'it is making darkness in the night time'. 'it is making' and 'it is' are very different .
Now I'm REALLY confused. I just finished posting the following in another lesson: I am confused. We previously learned that "hace" means "make" or "do". Now it means "it is"? What happened to "es"? That means "it is" too and we've been using it for many dozens of lessons. Why can't I use "es" in all of these examples? When do you choose "hace" over "es"?
Now "está" means "it is"? I've always understood that "está" means "is" not "it is".
Someone please help me out here. I'm thoroughly frustrated and ready to throw in the towel.
Don't throw in the towel Janet. It is confusing for most of us. I think the answer to your question about when to use hace vs. es or esta depends on whether your verb is referring to a noun or an adjective. You use hace when referring to a noun and es or esta when referring to an adjective. Calor or Sol are nouns, so you use hace. Nublado or Oscuro are adjectives, so you use es or esta. An interesting twist to all this is that frio can be a noun or an adjective, so you can use hace, es or esta, though hace is the most commonly used.
That's called "enlace", more on that here: https://www.lawlessspanish.com/pronunciation/enlace-encadenamiento/
It is dark at night -> Está oscuro en la noche. The night is dark -> La noche es oscura. In the second sentence "dark" describes "the night", but in the first one it describes "it". Same in Spanish, with the only difference that you don't need the literal pronoun "it"/"ello".
Estar is used: 1.to express location or position; 2.With an adjective to indicate a state or condition of the subject which may be non-inherent, accidental, relatively temporary, or variable. In this case I think "variable" is the key. Its different from dark in a cave underground. We have added a qualifier "at night" which suggests the location might change its lighting in daytime. I think.