Since it's "the meat", shouldn't the translation have an article too? "to maso" maybe. I know Czech is more loose with this but I wanted to be sure.
Czech doesn't have articles! 'To' is a demonstrative. Obviously the overlap with definite articles isn't perfect. Yet we have to teach the difference somehow... 'Máme to maso.' is accepted as well.
In English, "we have the meat" means we have the meat (that we need/that we talked about). If meat is just one thing that we have, we would never use the article "the". So my question, can "mame maso" refer to the meat we talked about before?
Yes, it can.