"Sie ist die Professorin, der ich geschrieben habe."
Translation:She is the professor I wrote to.
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In German you can write a book, a letter, a sentence, but not a person. It would have to be "to the professor", which is expressed with the dativ case, instead of the accusative, which is only for direct objects like a letter etc.
See also http://german.speak7.com/german_articles.htm - "der" is not always masculine, it appears in multiple positions in the table.
"She is the professor whom I have written" has not been accepted. Instead Duo suggested "She is the professor I wrote to." Now you can write to me, but you can also just write me, at least in American English:
https://www.oxfordlearnersdictionaries.com/definition/english/write?q=write (look for "write somebody" under the third meaning).
This needs to be added.
"She is the professor to whom I wrote." This gets my vote.
"She is the professor that I wrote to." This seems ok too, but more awkward.
The "to" is required in Australian English and probably British English.
It appears that American English has allowed the "to" to be omitted.
To my ears "She is the professor that I wrote." sounds very wrong, but I think it probably sounds normal to an American.
The "don't end sentences in a preposition" was an arbitrary rule written by one textbook author, which ended up dominating "proper English" education for a century. There's no linguistic reason to avoid it; its most "useful" function is as a distinguisher of class. As Churchill reportedly replied, "that is the sort of arrant pedantry up with which I will not put."