"Yo trabajo dos días esta semana."
Translation:I work two days this week.
"Have worked" would be "he trabajado". "Am working " sounds ideal to my ears.
Because the past participle "worked" is used when speaking of the past, "have worked" is not acceptable as a translation of "trabajo/I work/I am working." Also, perfect tenses are used when speaking of completed actions, "I have worked/he trabajando." Spanish Present Tense can be translated into either English Simple Present Tense or English Present Progressive Tense because Spanish-speaking people use Spanish Simple Present Tense to mean the same thing as both the English Simple Present and the English Present Progressive tenses.
It's a possible translation. Unfortunately, it is in the present tense and so we can't say that those two days have been worked already.
Colloquially, Spanish Simple Present Tense CAN be translated as English Past Tense when there is a time reference, such as "this week," in the sentence. It depends on context.
Lucky you! I work every day forever. No days off, no vacations. Haven't had a vacation since 2004.
Well I hope you get a break sometime soon. At least you have Duolingo to keep you sane. Works for me anyway.
I would say that it refers to the near future or something current, so could be said just before the days have been worked, or in the middle of them, but not over with. It would only refer to the past if it was "nosotros trabajamos dos..." (we are working /we worked). I agree that "I work two days this week" doesn't 'work' as a stand-alone sentence.
After reading your analysis, I would have to say that context is probably what determines whether "Trabajamos dos semanas" is present tense or past tense.
That translation is not right, "I work two days this week" the translation should be " I work two days a week "
Yours would be a logical word-for-word translation if "esta" meant "una," but I think that DL is pointing out a Spanish colloquial usage of "esta semana." Just as "el domingo" can be translated as "on Sunday," with the article being translated as a preposition, it seems logical that "esta semana" can be translated as "of (this) week."
Maybe there are some days off during part of the week, thus you can not assume that it applies to all working weeks. With "esta semana" the person is referring to a particular and concrete week: usually the current week or in case the person is pointing to a week in a calendar that particular week.