"The woman drinks water."
अनुवाद:औरत पानी पीती है।
I do understand that there is no word in Hindi that directly translates to the English word "the". However, in the context of this sentence, the English version has a "the" (definite article) which implies that we are talking about some particular woman.
So overall I think, that the translation in Hindi that would be closer to the English meaning, would be "वह औरत पानी पीती है ", with the "वह" sort-of representing the "the".
The currently accepted answers e.g. "औरत पानी पीती है", that are talking about some unspecified woman, are wrong translations of the English sentence, in my opinion.
Your thinking is quite logical.
"औरत पानी पीती है" is actually the closest Hindi translation for "The woman drinks water." It does not mean some unspecified woman. That would be "कोई औरत पानी पीती है"
The issue is there is no clear mapping between these two languages because of lack of use of "articles" a, an and the in Hindi.
In "वह औरत पानी पीती है" - "That woman drinks water", वह can be a probably a distant proxy for 'the'. And then you can also have a "this" version "यह औरत पानी पीती है". Our team decided to avoid adding further mis-mapping issues because "औरत पानी पीती है" conveys the closest Hindi meaning for "The woman drinks water."