I will use the answer from another discussion. How do you know from the czech sentence that the stapler is "mine"? Is it possible to say: "he took me a stapler"?
For the first point, he took it from me so it was probably mine. "the stapler" is accepted as well.
No, but it is possible to say "He took a stapler from me."
I can answer your second question... No, in English it is not possible to say "He took me a stapler." Maybe someone else will answer the first question.
Thank you for both ansvers.
Out of curiosity: was this part of the course inspired by the movie "Office Space"(aka "Maléry pana Šikuly")? The sentences about staplers and paychecks sound very much like lines from the film :)