Is there anyone who could talk me through figuring out how to adequately track students progress?
Check out these posts, they may have some useful information.
I will hop back after I have done a bit more research myself as well.
There could be some good ideas in this post also: https://forum.duolingo.com/comment/6318291
Also, check out the "related articles" to the right of your screen when you check out these posts. They may also have some useful information for you about this issue.
The picture shows where to click for "Activity details" or "Course progress"
More information about Duolingo for Schools in