"Tuesday comes after Monday."
Translation:मंगलवार सोमवार के बाद आता है।
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If the बाद is signifying duration then के is optional; and actually unnecessary.
E.g. I will go to Mumbai after two months - २ महीने बाद.
But when you want a location marker, then you must use के बाद.
Tuesday comes after Monday, as in the example sentence सोमवार के बाद.
Yes, you grammatically correct. However, the main subject is Tuesday, and the sentence goes on to provide its description, i.e. 'comes after Monday'. In your proposed sentence we lose that nuance, because both Monday & Tuesday get equal emphasis - to a native Hindi speaker at least. I agree that it's quite subtle. But nevertheless, it's there.
I think it's easiest to think of it almost literally, if you imagine something like (proscribed/dialectal English vernacular) 'Tuesday be coming after Monday'. It can be used with verbs other than 'to be', but it's always adding that 'bes' or 'does be' that we don't use in standard English.