"Neha's mother has gone to the market."
Translation:नेहा की माँ दुकान गयी है।
Not necessarily. Both "Neha's mother has gone" and "Neha's mother went" can be used if she has not yet returned from the market. (Like if Neha's father comes home and says, "Neha, where is your mother?" Neha can respond, "She went to the market" even if mother is not back yet).
The main difference in this sentence is that the present perfect (has gone) is tied to the present moment in time, while the simple past (went) can be independent of the present.
If the sentence said, "Neha's mother went to the market," we wouldn't know if she went 5 minutes ago, this morning, yesterday, or in 1970 (etc.). We'd have no way of knowing without more information. But since it says "has gone," we know that she went very recently.
Please note however that this is just a present perfect vs. simple past explanation. The present perfect has more uses than just this one. For example, experience, as in:
Has Neha's mother ever gone to the market? Yes. Neha's mother has gone to the market.
This doesn't mean she actually went. It's just saying she has gone at least once.
For more formal explanations, I would look up Present Perfect Tense and Present Perfect Tense vs. Simple Past Tense.