The tricky thing is to think of 'Hindi' as the thing doing the action. मुझे shows that you're the recipient of the action rather than the subject doing it. The literal translation would be "A little Hindi comes to me". This also explains why आती will always have the feminine ending, because it's agreeing with 'Hindi', not with you as the speaker.
Ooo, yes- I was just about to post a question asking if this translation means "Hindi comes to me a little." Thanks for the confirmation. This being the case, is there another verb for "know"? What if it is something other than a language? And what if it is a person? For example, would "Do you know the answer?" be क्या तुम्हें जवाब आता है ? And would "I know Peter well" be मुझे अच्छी पीतर आता है ?
There are multiple ways to say 'know'.
पता होना is used mostly for facts etc that you know but there is no level of comprehension required. Eg: क्या तुम्हे पता है की मेरा बटुआ कहाँ है? (Do you know where my wallet is), मुझे उसका नंबर पता है (I know his number)
जानना is also 'know' but there is some level of understanding implied. Eg: मैं जानता हूँ कि मुझसे गलती हुई है (I know that I've made a mistake), क्या तुम जानते हो कि कल यहाँ क्या हुआ था? (Do you know what happened here yesterday?) etc. जानना can also be used to say that you know/are familiar with people or things. Eg: क्या तुम मेरे दादाजी को जानते हो? (Do you know my grandfather), मैं इस मंदिर के बारे में जानता हूँ (I know about this temple).
Yet another way to say that you know something is to simply use the verb आना (to come). This is used for skills, games or languages that you know (जानना can replace आना in most of these cases but using आना is often used to distinguish 'know the skill' from 'know about the skill' ). Eg: मुझे हिंदी आती है (I know Hindi), क्या तुम्हें क्रिकेट खेलना आता है? (Do you know how to play cricket), उसे गिटार बजाना आता है (She knows how to play the guitar)
I agree, this is indeed very helpful. Hindi can be so subtle when it comes to verb combinations. One thing I wanted to ask, though: How would you interpret know as in को + मालूम + होना along the lines of what you shared in your post? As in मुझे मालूम है। क्या आपको मालूम है कि ...
आना 1. to come 2. to have knowledge of a language; to be fluent