Can somebody explain to me why अपना is translated as "my" ? I really don't understand that :(
From DL's Tips & Notes:
In Hindi, sentences like “I eat my apple” seem too redundant (मैं मेरा सेब खाता हूँ). So, a class of three different words are used to replace possessive pronouns when their (pro)noun has been mentioned before.
अपना is used for masculine singular objects, अपनी for female singular or plural objects, and अपने for masculine plural objects. Example:
- मैं अपना सेब खाता हूँ। – I eat my apple.
- तुम अपनी किताब पढ़ती हो। - You read your book.
- उसके बच्चे अपने केले खाते हैं। - His children eat their bananas.
Sometimes, these words can also be used when their noun or pronoun is obvious from the context. For example, when a kid comes up to you, you might ask them “अपना नाम बताओ” – Tell me your name (बताओ – imperative form of tell), where it is obvious that अपना means your (Notice that me is not required in such a sentence).
These words also take up the oblique case. For example, वह अपने घर से आती है – She comes from her home (आना - to come; अपना घर changes to अपने घर because of से - from).
It refers to "my own" -- like in I am doing my work: मैं अपना काम करती हूँ। usually the possessive would be "मेरा" but saying "मैं मेरा काम करती हूँ।" is just grammatically incorrect... I've been given the reason: "because it just sounds weird" in my studies.
That was always the explanation I got in school - "it just sounds weird" and ended up mugging up the rules (I'm a Malayali). Thanks!
I can see a very good reason for using अपना if the subject is a 3rd person. In English, a sentence like "He gives you his banana" is not 100% clear: does he give you his own banana or someone else's? Using अपना in the Hindi translation of this sentence would make it clear that the banana is his own.
However, I must say I don't see any reason for using अपना with the 1st and 2nd person subjects... Maybe the 3rd person case was extended to the other persons for whatever reason, despite the use of अपना is not necessary then?
Does अपना only apply to the subject of the sentence? In other words, could it refer to "my" banana only, or also to "your" banana (since you have already been mentioned with तुम्हें)?
Apnaa replaces the possessive pronoun (which could be teraa as you’ve said) when it refers to the same person as the subject of the sentence. So for example, तू अपना केला का रहा है। : YOU are eating YOUR banana. But if the subject and owner of the noun being possessed are not the same, the regular possessive pronouns apply, as such: वह तेरा केला का रहा है।
this begins to feel like a cards against humanity game with all the d*** jokes.
Why are the innuendo-noting comments being downvoted? Is there a predilection for prudery in these parts?
I came here specifically to say 'Oo-er, missus', but perhaps I'd better not.
No, that's not correct. You could either say "मैं अपना केला तुम्हें देता हूँ" OR "मैं तुम्हें अपना केला देता हूँ।" The possessive adjective (अपना) and the noun (केला) should be together.
As an aside: why do we use "tumhe" and "tujhe" but "aapko" (VS saying "aaphe" or "tumko") ? Are they from different root languages?
If there are russian learners or speakers, this aapne is like "свой" which likewise corresponds the object with gender and is used whenever the owner is defined.