"मैं तुम्हें अपना केला देता हूँ।"

Translation:I give you my banana.

July 20, 2018

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Can somebody explain to me why अपना is translated as "my" ? I really don't understand that :(


From DL's Tips & Notes:

In Hindi, sentences like “I eat my apple” seem too redundant (मैं मेरा सेब खाता हूँ). So, a class of three different words are used to replace possessive pronouns when their (pro)noun has been mentioned before.

अपना is used for masculine singular objects, अपनी for female singular or plural objects, and अपने for masculine plural objects. Example:

  • मैं अपना सेब खाता हूँ। – I eat my apple.
  • तुम अपनी किताब पढ़ती हो। - You read your book.
  • उसके बच्चे अपने केले खाते हैं। - His children eat their bananas.

Sometimes, these words can also be used when their noun or pronoun is obvious from the context. For example, when a kid comes up to you, you might ask them “अपना नाम बताओ” – Tell me your name (बताओ – imperative form of tell), where it is obvious that अपना means your (Notice that me is not required in such a sentence).

These words also take up the oblique case. For example, वह अपने घर से आती है – She comes from her home (आना - to come; अपना घर changes to अपने घर because of से - from).


Hey Fer, thanks for posting the DL tips here. I totally missed them when I reviewed the tips on my own. Useful info. Here's a lingot


How to say : "I give you your banana" ?


Simply तुम्हारा केला instead of अपना (here meaning 'my') केला।


It refers to "my own" -- like in I am doing my work: मैं अपना काम करती हूँ। usually the possessive would be "मेरा" but saying "मैं मेरा काम करती हूँ।" is just grammatically incorrect... I've been given the reason: "because it just sounds weird" in my studies.


That was always the explanation I got in school - "it just sounds weird" and ended up mugging up the rules (I'm a Malayali). Thanks!


One Lingot to my fellow Malayali


One day we might be moderating Malayalam here buddies.


I'd love to learn Malayalam!


I can see a very good reason for using अपना if the subject is a 3rd person. In English, a sentence like "He gives you his banana" is not 100% clear: does he give you his own banana or someone else's? Using अपना in the Hindi translation of this sentence would make it clear that the banana is his own.

However, I must say I don't see any reason for using अपना with the 1st and 2nd person subjects... Maybe the 3rd person case was extended to the other persons for whatever reason, despite the use of अपना is not necessary then?


In English 'his own' resolves that ambiguity, I found it helpful to read आपन that way at first too.


मेरा = my

अपना = my own = मेरा खुदका

"अपना" gives a sense of closeness or possessiveness.


Mera Khudka has a similar meaning but should be used in context like, Mera Khudka banaya ya kia hua.


Does अपना only apply to the subject of the sentence? In other words, could it refer to "my" banana only, or also to "your" banana (since you have already been mentioned with तुम्हें)?


Apnaa replaces the possessive pronoun (which could be teraa as you’ve said) when it refers to the same person as the subject of the sentence. So for example, तू अपना केला का रहा है। : YOU are eating YOUR banana. But if the subject and owner of the noun being possessed are not the same, the regular possessive pronouns apply, as such: वह तेरा केला का रहा है।


"खा रहा है।" not "का रहा है।"


I had the same question. The answers here seem to suggest that only subjects can control apnaa, objects can't.


If there are russian learners or speakers, this aapne is like "свой" which likewise corresponds the object with gender and is used whenever the owner is defined.


I was so confused at first since I thought it would say "I give my banana to you"


Why are the innuendo-noting comments being downvoted? Is there a predilection for prudery in these parts?


I didnt catch the innuendo, but laughed at the comments. Not everyone has a sense of humor, i suppose. LoL


Speaking for myself: because I'm here to learn a language, I'm several years out of school, and I get an email every time somebody comments on a question that I've also commented on. I want those notifications if it's a question or explanation about Hindi, perhaps I can learn something, or even help someone else. I don't need the thousandth 'LOL' or snarky comment on the characters' lives.


Well I said this sentence to my (indian) girlfriend and she laughed.


I came here specifically to say 'Oo-er, missus', but perhaps I'd better not.


well not every Indian can take a joke sadly, they think we are being "Anti indian" with these pervy innuendos in indian languages, lol.


As an aside: why do we use "tumhe" and "tujhe" but "aapko" (VS saying "aaphe" or "tumko") ? Are they from different root languages?


tumhe & tujhe mean the same as tum ko & tujh ko.

It's just a different (less formal/शुद्ध I think) way of saying the dative, than indirect+को, a variant form that आप doesn't have.

('Why' it doesn't have an alternative form I don't know, probably 'just doesn't', although a sort-of answer could be that प + ह never form a conjunct without the implicit vowel, would be hard to make that sound different than फ even if they did. So a hypothetical variant form of the dative would be different than 'aaphe', and so if it existed the question would just be 'why is it not indirect+(h)e like the others' instead of 'why does it not exist'.)


Can this not be translated as "I give him his banana"?


No, तुम्हे = तुम को = to you, and अपना = sentence subject's = [in this case] mine.


Why it ( apna)does not denote " Your" Instead " My"


It's the 'reflexive' pronoun, referring back to (or 'reflecting') the sentence's subject - in this case 'I'.

Whereas in तुम मुझे अपना केला दो the subject is 'you'; so अपना here refers to the subject again, making it in this case 'your banana'.


If apna is a pronoun, why 'I give you your banana' is wrong ?


Because it refers back to the sentence's grammatical subject, in this case मैं


Is मैं अपना तुम्हें केला देता हूँ। acceptable?


No, that's not correct. You could either say "मैं अपना केला तुम्हें देता हूँ" OR "मैं तुम्हें अपना केला देता हूँ।" The possessive adjective (अपना) and the noun (केला) should be together.


So it should go with केला the object of the sentence, right?


Why I give you your banana is wrong?


Shouldn't it be i will give you my banana? I think there's a grammar mistake.


No, देता is present (imperfect) tense, not future (देेगा).


Please, how is it possible to write in devanagari, I am french ? We use maim and why not mujhé for beginning the sentence?


Depends on your operating system, but in general you need to add it in keyboard/language settings. Just like if you used an English keyboard you might need to add French in settings to have all your accents.

मुझे is the dative, it is to मैं as French leur is to les (or lui to le/la). E.g. 'Give it to me (मुझे)' vs. 'I (मैं) give it'.

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