Actually most of us do use "hai" even in negatives. Is duolingo teaching that "hai" shouldn't be used in negatives?
Please report that. They should teach that "hai" is not compulsory in negatives but most speakers do use it.
Actually, I haven't heard it that often. It's very common to omit it. It's very uncommon to use it actually. Only in the imperfective present tenses though.
Question: How does one know when one is speaking Urdu? When does Urdu begin: Once we say "Hindustan" (or some other specific word)?
I think yours is a great question that does have a political dimension. In Punjab / around the Northwest of India, I would hear many speakers prefer to just say "India" (using the English word). In a place where Muslims, Sikhs, and Hindus (amongst others) each have significant claims to public culture, it would sometimes feel weird to call the place "Hindustan" (so far as that might be interpreted as "land of Hindus"). Not to mention the fact that some considered the "real" Hindustan to literally be the lands where Hindu people are more predominant, to the South, so that in fact whereas they are in India they are not in "Hindustan." At the same time, "bhaarat" has a Sanskritic-ness to it that is not completely to the taste of all. So "India" it is, and Hello and Goodbye! (It will be interesting to see how many native Hindi speakers here, from among people spread across a huge area, will generalize their own personal experience as representative of Hindi—and to see people whose impression was formed through living in places where Hindi speakers receive varying forms of entitlement.)
Interesting. I've heard a certain pandit using Hindustan, but he's actually from Northern India. I have a tendency to use Bharat, but given my path and love of Sanskrit, that makes sense (although it wasn't intentionally done for that reason, it's just what always feels right to me). Typically of native Hindi speakers I know, it's these two I hear them use, but mostly Bharat - even when they are speaking in English.
If they are saying "Bharat" even when speaking English, then they're a fair chance they are a Hindu Nationalist and/or BJP support. To put a fine point on it: You may find yourself amongst the like-minded folks that are great with that, but I personally as a non-Indian visitor would not go around indiscriminately saying it when I don't know whom I'm interacting with. There's nothing wrong with it necessarily, but it could alienate you (or at least keep you from getting close to) half the people you meet as a visitor—in which saying "India" is a rather safe option. When I go to pandit ji's house though, I will bring him sweets and say "namashkaar" and "praNaam" (with a definite retroflex N) and Bharaat this and Bhaarat that, lol.
Ji, I wouldn't think they are either Hindu Nationalist or BJP support, rather it's the circles I am in . Realize I am sannyasini, so I am mostly around swamis, pandits and other sannyasins. I do the occasional pranam, but usually only in emails to my Guru Ji.
I never namaste or namaskar, because for me it's either Jai Shiv Shankar, Har Har Mahadev, or something along those lines.
When I visit India, again, I'm typically around the same types. I stay in ashrams and visit temples and other holy places. But, I definitely appreciate your feedback and will keep it in mind. Bahut dhanyavad!
मैं समझती हूँ. Here in the US, I also have friends who are Sikh and Muslim. We are very diverse. The thought never occurred to me, which is why I'm glad you shared. To me, the word "India" doesn't feel right, because of colonialism, which is why I've mostly used Bharat. Although, I will use caution in other scenarios. I do plan to eventually make it back to India, God willing!
I understand, sivapriya, I thought I was clear in saying that the advise was for the average non-Indian visitor to India. When someone like myself, who does not look "Indian" and who is not Hindu, goes to India, we tend to mix with certain people. We don't end up in these pockets of people that you happen to be among. We are with the Sikh taxi drivers and with the Muslims running shops. We are "on the street" with working people who are Dalits. We are interacting with popular culture like Bollywood films and its songs. Above all, we are with people who support Congress and other alternative parties, among whom "Bhaarat" is not the favorite term. Likewise, I don't go to New York City and walk around saying "Make America Great Again."
it's definitely valid for many hindi speakers, I've heard it both ways so either can be used i guess. I do hear bharat more often in conversation
I learned Hindi in an American university but I was taught that both are acceptable. Once I continued my studies in learning the history of India and the politics around the partition, "Hindustan"/"Hindustani" seemed more to me like a term used by Hindu nationalists.
Hindustan is not really a completely Hindu nationalist term. Many people use it and it's very common in the movies.
Hindustan is an Urdu word. Urdu words are also used in India depending on the location and yes, sometimes people may use "हिंदुस्तान" especially in places like Lucknow or Delhi which were ruled by the Mughals for hundreds of years, speakers of Urdu. In today's time, we would generally use "भारत" or just "India". There are no negative consequences for using any of the three.