You're supposed to be learning to read Hindi! If you read it, it clearly says यह (this), not यहाँ (here). And if you listen to it more carefully, you can hear that they are doing a WEIRD pronunciation of यह (which I disagree with, which is discussed many times here), yet not saying यहाँ. I don't mean to sound rude, Haider bhai, but if the first person made a wrong assertion due to not actually reading what's there, then I point out their misunderstanding ... and then AGAIN you say it is wrong because you didn't read either, then what can we do?
यह is not formal. It's the spelling of the word that is normally used by any literate Hindi speaker/reader. However, the spelling does not reflect the pronunciation, which is like /ye/. In writing, ये, also pronounced as /ye/ indicates a plural form. In sum:
***Spoken Hindi (Delhi dialect), everyday speech: This = /ye/ These = /ye/
Spoken Hindi, idealistic/formal speech (adopted by Duolingo): This = /ya-h(a)/ (!!) These = /ye/
Written Hindi not well-educated: THis = ये These = ये
***Written Hindi, casual: This = यह These = यह
***Written Hindi, standard: This = यह These = ये
The starred ones (***) are my personal preferences :) But one can see how there is considerable confusion caused by the way people tend to interpret Devanagri as being 100% "phonetic." Devanagri does follow very consistent rules, but one of those rules concerns a sound change created by letter ह.
There are many posts on these boards about this and how Duolingo creators chose to interpret Devanagri as 100% phonetic, hence causing a lot of confusion for people who know what spoken Hindi sounds like and give authority to sound rather than spelling!
My native language is Hindi (as well as Bengali and Magghi(Bihar)). And formally, the pronunciation of यह(yahuh) with the ह (huh) is actually the correct pronunciation. The pronunciation of the same as ये is a result of colloquially spoken hindi and it is informal. Only recently is it being accepted formally but not totally. If you go dialect wise, there are more than 20 major dialects of hindi and on ground it changes like literally from one region to other. In a region there may be a accumulation of several dialects too. So yes pronounciations like ये, वे, वो, are a result of that but the 'शुद्ध' hindi for यह/वह is the one with the pronunciation of ह(huh). When we are taught वाक्य अशुद्धि शोधन (correct the incorrect sentences) we are taught about these little things. You all can go try those out online they are readily available it will make your hindi more refined once you learn basic sentences. :)
How do you work out the letters in this sentence? I haven't seen some of them before - I only recognise ह (Ha - Letters 4 Lesson 4). But all the others look similar but are different to letters we've previously learnt. I don't really understand how the Hindi alphabet works yet.
pay attention to where the vertical lines are. In some cases the line sits to the left of the consonant, sometimes it is to the right. It depends on the consonant. There doesn't seem to be much opportunity to ask questions in the letters modules, so you will have to work it out here, in basics, when you see the letters put to use into words.