You will find many many many words in Hindi that came into Hindi through Urdu and those are all Persian. There will also be many Arabic words. Just like cognates between French and English many words are shared. Persian used to be the official language of India before the British took over in 1857.
And I expect some words from Arabic will have been reshaped for Persian pronunciation before they entered Hindi/Urdu, in the same way that some Latin words were reshaped by French before entering English.
Yes, you are correct. The pronunciation of the words may change when it comes into Hindi. Also remember that some letters like P and G (like in God) do not exist in Arabic. Similarly, some letters are modified in Hindi which incorporate those Arabic and Persian letters that do not exist in Hindi. For example there are three "S's" in Arabic (with a slightly different pronunciation) and three Y's in Persian.
Kitaab is one of the most common Hindi words. More people will understand kitaab.
You are right.
You need to know that Yah can be pronounced as Ye. In some instances, duolingo may also pronounce it as Yah.
In the real world, most people say Ye. You would be understood regardless of whether you say Yah or Ye.
The root of ye and vo does indeed have an h at the end but it is generally ignored in speech. For example here, there and where, which are derived from "this" and "that" have a distinct h in both words. "Here" would be यहाँ and "there" would be वहां whereas "where" would be कहां.
Is the H pronounced when the next letter begins with a vowel? Would it be pronounced "vo admee" or "voh admee" or even "vah admee"?
The h of यह and वह should never be pronounced. It's ये and वो.
The h of यहाँ and वहाँ should always be pronounced.
You seem to be referring to liaison in French. No it does not exist in Hindi.
I imagine this is using some sort of automatic voice generator, as is used for Google Translate. If that is the case, I suspect the machine may try to pronounce यह the same in all contexts. Like you, I'm finding that pretty confusing, but I understand why they can't avoid it. It happens in all the programs, so for instance, the Greek feminine "the," η, should be prounounced /ee/, but the machine always says /eeta/, the name of the letter.
Once again a native speaker of URDU trying to learn Hindi script. Like the previous discussion, you audio says यहाँ and not यह
यहाँ means here, not this. In Urdu the audio sounds like یہاں and not یہ
"Yahan" means the physical "here," "yeh" should refer to the word "this."
Thank you all for the commentary. It is helpful for knowing the context and colloquial uses.
Maybe this is something obvious that I'm missing, but can someone explain why the क at the end of एक pronounced?
I'm guessing you mean, Why does it sound like /ka/ instead of just /k/?
If that's the case, the reason is that the speaker is being careful to use clear diction to distinguish ek kitaab as two separate words, rather than running them together as "ekitaab".
I can't press the continue button near the end of the exercise. The page is all messed up and the word boxes are on top of the green continue button, so can finish exercise.
Out of curiosity I translated the sentence as "HE is a book". It was rejected but is it theoretically possible?