"फ़रवरी का महीना छोटा होता है।"
Translation:The month of February is short.
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Yes, फ़रवरी का महीना छोटा है is also correct. Hota hai” / “Hote hain" -a conditional case is often used when talking about the inherent qualities of the subject. In this example, "shortness" is a quality of February since it is the shortest month of the year; "Coldness" an innate quality of "ice" and so on. However, in DL lessons and in the common parlance, it appears this usage does not always follow the rule.
This is a Hindi -learning course. No language translates exactly. You are not being asked to speak the English translation, just to understand the meaning of these Hindi sentences. If you were to do a literal translation of your accustomed English sentences back to Hindi, it would make no sense to the Hindi speaker. For instance, the German for "the month of february is short" is "der februarmonat ist kurz." Yet, if you were to translate the literal meaning of this sentence in English, it would read, "the february month is short."
It's hard to explain, but usually nouns in English need an article (a/an/the), a possesssive [my, her, theirs) or demonstrative pronoun (this, that, such etc). Here it's month that needs 'the' - you have to say 'The month of February'. February itself is a proper noun, a name, like Rupesh, Monday, India etc, and doesn't need an article. The reason 'man' in your example doesn't need an article etc is because it's a collective noun, meaning all of mankind.