As French contributed an enormous amount of vocabulary to English, making it less of a "Germanic" language, Persian contributed to Hindi. Persian had acquired words from Arabic, and these same words went into Hindi. I would guess that most similarities to Turkish are due to Arabic (or possibly Persian) words loaned into Turkish. If one studies Hindi in the Arabic script, one gets a clearer sense of which words are of Persian-Arabic origin, but the spellings used in Devanagari often conceal the Persian-Arabic origins.
The translation is accurate, and you're overthinking it by bringing in context that's not there ;) There are of course ways to say specifically what you want about that hypothetical zoo, but I don't think (I'm not at the end yet!) this Dueling course gets that far, e.g. jo baRe jaanvar hai~ ve ghaas nahi~ khaate.
"hotā" for general truth is contrasted with "hai." hotā is the "imperfect aspect" form of the verb "honā" (to be) -- in imprecise terms, it's like the "present tense conjugated form" (not exactly, but you get the picture.)
"khātā" (here, khāte) is the similar "imperfect aspect form" of its corresponding infinitive, khānā (to eat).
So, khāte already reflects the present tense, with the potential for making a general statement. And there doesn't exist anything like "hai" for other verbs (like khānā, for example).
To reiterate, the "general truths" distinction is just made between forms based on "honā"/ [to be]. It doesn't come into play when using other verbs.
It's more nuanced than what I'm saying (with some slightly incorrect grammatical explanation), but I hope this is enough to convey the rule.
That is the point. For now, you should not think, you should understand. There s a lot of nonsense in the world. Fake news and co. So, try not to judge the statements here and just go with them.
Also: If a question contains a wrong fact, you can't guess it, make a mistake and then learn from it.
Because Duolingo is teaching the basics, they aren't really worrying about the facts. It's like getting angry because you have to create sentences about your non-existent family members. Even if you're trying to teach someone English, a good sentence will often have a ridiculous meaning.