Why is होते not required for this statement but is required for "Tomato is not a vegetable"?
I would also appreciate it if someone who knew the answer to this question could reply.
Tomato is not a vegetable --- टमाटर एक सब्ज़ी नहीं है । / टमाटर सब्ज़ी नहीं होता ।
For this statement --- आलू और गाजर सब्जियाँ हैं। / आलू और गाजर सब्जियाँ होते है |
But they are grammatically singular. Like cauliflower and cabbage in English. You don't say "cauliflowers are vegetables." But you do say "cauliflower and cabbage are vegetables."
But you do say cauliflowers are vegetables and not cauliflower are vegetables (you could say the latter, but it would sound unusual).
I think I'd use the plural for all of those examples.
Or articles, I suppose. I might say 'The potato/carrot/cauliflower/cabbage is a vegetable' (if I didn't mind sounding strangely academic).
English is being inconsistent by making potato and carrot countable and cauliflower and cabbage non-countable. Hindi is simply being consistent.
I agree that the Hindi is more internally logical, or I would if cauliflower and cabbage were uncountable, which they're not. The point is just that the English translation sounds unnatural.
The English grammar in this question is wrong, or at least very clumsy and not at all how it would be said in English. It should be "potatoes and carrots are..."