"You drink water."
Translation:तुम पानी पीते हो।
So... tu goes with hai, and tum goes with ho? Is that the same for both male and female?
Yes, equal for male/female. Tum is between tu and ap. Tum is said to equals. Tu is more appropriate for children or very close friends.
Tu is (neutral to gender) used for all and tum is same but gives more respect
This is a variant of the masculine suffix that's applied to तुम. For तू it would be पीता. But whenever you want to use a verb with a masculine suffix with तुम, make sure to use the ते suffix instead.
With "masculine verb" you mean a verb that references a masculine object? I never heard that verbs have a gender...
Yes. In all of the exercises that you've done the verb has been conjugated to the gender of the subject.
To the subect. Julia eats Raj: जूलिया राज खाती है Raj eats Julia: राज जूलिया खाता है
तु is the 2nd person most informal pronoun. Use it for kids, spouses(and I've also heard, used when addressing god). तुम is the medium level of informality Use it when address friends. Also the use of तुम vs. आप (the most formal second person pronoun) varies from city to city. Some use आप with the exact same people another city would use तुम.
When using "tum", what would the feminine suffix of the word be? Would it be ती as it usually is?
What is the transliteration of the last word I can't figure it out and why is it different from the normal hai.
Imagine it as the ho part of hose.
तुम(You) has the aux verb ending हो.
I learned a couple words/sentences of Hindi before and was always taught that I should be using अप because it is more polite than तूम or तू . Same goes for all books I read so far. Any specific reasoning we are taught the very informal version?
My native language Dutch and also German have a somewhat similar system of honorifics. It is silly if you would only learn the top step of the system. Since the different honorific levels of pronouns come with different conjugations it is certainly useful to learn all of them. Think of reading novels or talking to children. I'm certain Indian children will feel odd when a foreigner adresses them with Aap.
I asked an indian friend what a child would think when I adress it with "aap". He laughed his ass off and said "it would feel like king".
My Indian husband has recommended always using aap as its always the polite thing to do
It really is. Certainly if you mean to respect somebody. Has nothing to do with age or your relationship with that person IMO.
I agree that people learning Hindi (or any language as a matter of fact) should learn all the various honorifics, it's an essential part of learning any language. What I don't agree on is the talking to children not using "Aap" part. Actually, from an Indian perspective, it's polite and not at all strange to use "aap" with kids. My mum uses "aap" while talking to the neighbourhood's kids and used to talk to me and my siblings when we were kids using "aap". With kids, I use "tum" or sometimes "aap" but every Indian is different. There's a billion of us, maybe I was raised uber-polite lol.