Because जाती is the verb here. जाती can be only used when the subject is feminine singular or it is feminine plural.
Masculine singular =जाता
Masculine plural = जाते
Mixed assembly(men and women) = जाते
Because the sentence given is in simple present tense while yours is in present continuous tense.
Because here, वह has been used for the woman not to point out an object in the sense of "that".
Why is "America" synonymous with "United States"? Don't Indians understand it's a content that includes latinos, NOT ONLY the US?
It's basically just because no one wants to use the long complex term for United States which is outdated as well, Indians themselves feel weird using such terms, lol. Others, it's just because the purely hindi speaking population is usually uneducated and don't know much Geography. They also assume that you understand that they meant US when they said America. No one really talks about South America or Canada or Mexico. So why use US all the time?