"Take your apple from her and give her her banana."
Translation:उससे अपना सेब लो और उसे उसका केला दो।
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A few things here:
1) In Hindi, the gender (and plurality) agreement is with the object possessed, not the possessor(s). So from वह उसका सेब है 'vah uska seb hai', we actually don't know whether it's her/his apple, we just know that apples are masculine (and that this sentence is referring to a singular apple).
2) usse (उससे) is not possessive, it's roughly 'from him/her'. (उस being the oblique form of वह, and से being से)।
3) apna/e (short a, not long aa like aap आप 'you') is the reflexive pronoun, it refers back to the subject, so we know it means hers/his/mine (or their/that's/this's/...) from whichever was the subject. आप को अपनी समझ आ रही है - aap ko apni samajh aa rahi hai - your (apna) understanding is coming to you (subject).
(And note my example in 3 is another example of 1 - I gather from your display photo that you're male, but समझ is a feminine noun, so it's अपनी, and आ रही to you anyway, not अपना and आ रहा।)
It's subtly (or not so subtly) teaching us a new concept: conjunctive participles.
This site calls it pluperfect: https://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/Hindi/Verbs
It's basically a way to connect two clauses without using conjunctions. Hence the form लेके. What I'm getting a bit confused about is why apna was not used in both clauses.
1. Addressing your question:
In both clauses, the person being spoken to is the same person. I.e. it's the person who is being told what to do.
But the possessor of the thing being exchanged is different between the clauses.
you take your apple
you give her her banana
Apna applies in the first clause (and only there) because the possessor is the same person as the subject.
Thanks for doing the legwork and finding the good references. That's worth 5 lingots. :-)
thanks, appreciate it
i thought it would be more like give her HER OWN apple, so apna would be there too. but it makes sense that apna relates to the person being spoken to, not the possessor, this would coincide with russian then.
btw, now that i'm looking at this 5 months later, i don't see the conjunctives, i just see और, perhaps duo changed it, simplified it
Can someone explain the difference between usse and uskaa? I also dont quite understand when to use unka and unha
Today's correct multiple-choice answer: उससे अपना सेब लेके उसे उसका केला दो
I've been reviewing imperatives twice a week for a couple months, and this is the first time I've seen the conjunctive used. But judging by this conversation, it's something they rotate in and out over time. Follow the links maz1269 gave in his August 9, 2019 response. There's good content there for folks who are seeing conjunctives for the first time.
FYI another way of translating this Hindi back to English is "Taking your apple from her, give her her banana." In English, we call "taking your apple from her" a "participle clause". Hindi does essentially the same thing, but because of the Hindi word order, the form of verb used (here लेके) plays a role similar to the English conjunction "and". (One article on this: https://english.lingolia.com/en/grammar/sentences/participle-clauses)
So, think of the Hindi conjunctive form of a verb as a "custom conjunction". :-)
Yeah I know, but the word order isn't so relevant here, is it? I mean, the word order is different in Hindi and in English, I don't know if it's really good to try to keep it as similar as possible.
I'm not a native hindi speakerbut I like to share how I helped me with this sentence. So tell me guys is the following understanding is correct.
First I read
Your apple from her -> Upna seb usse
And then I read take -> lo
Give her her banana -> Usse uska kela dho
I meant I read the verbs last and make sentence like this
Hope this is correct and it helps. ^_^
Seriously DuoLingo?! We still haven't learned basic expressions like "Excuse me/sorry", "Nice to meet you", " Do you speak English" etc! Please give us a basic knowledge of useful phrases before teaching us complex sentences!!
Duolingo isn't a phrase book, each lesson teaches something new about the language in terms of grammar (or script in the early ones in Hindi's case) and vocabulary is mostly a side-effect.
Questions have been taught by this point, and options for the verb 'speak' have been encountered. 'English' maybe hasn't, but that can be easily looked up, and 'American' definitely has - so it's an easy substitution and grammatically the same. FYI, it's अंग्रेज़ी (or a person अंग्रेज़).
So: क्या आप अंग्रेज़ी बोलते हैं? (Or other gender/respect forms as also covered in earlier lessons.)
"Do you speak English?" is perhaps the most useless phrase to learn ever.
Let's say it's "pong lok dik how?" and they reply "nam dik car hey"… if you don't have enough words, you're going to have to revert back to English regardless of whether their reply meant "yes", "no", "I don't understand your accent" or "I'd love to".
If you need to ask, you're probably about to revert to English, loud noises and hand gestures anyway… no matter what they say.
It's rather vexatious that they omitted the lesson for these very complex concepts, which are suddenly much more complex than preceding lessons. I understand the methodology of just throwing us into the language as one would experience in real life speaking with locals, yet this is too complicated to pick up the nuance they're asking us to distinguish with no prior explanation. This is the first lesson where I'm finding myself having to take substantial breaks from Duolingo to reference other sources (i.e. learning-hindi.com) to familiarize myself with the relevant concepts first.
OK, now I understand the problem. None of the three options given match the correct answer you see at the top of this discussion page, so it's impossible to get this question right. There is however one of the answers which is clearly incorrect that it accepts as correct.
I'm doing this as practice and I never used to have a problem with this sentence so I guess duolingo has been doing some editing and introduced an error. Hopefully they'll clear it up soon.
Most of the time, you're given this: "उससे अपना सेब लो और उसे उसका केला दो"
Split it in half at the "and", i.e. "और". That gives you: "उससे अपना सेब लो", and "उसे उसका केला दो". And you can take it from there with two short sentences.
The above should cover you for nearly all cases in Duolingo. But ...
Once in a while, they give an alternate phrasing: "अपना सेब उससे लेके उसका केला उसे दो". This one is trickier because they're using a form of the verb "to take" that doubles as a conjunction. And this construction can be used with any verb. In this case, it's लेके. But if the verb were "to give", you'd see देके instead. The best I can say is read everything you can find in this thread on "conjunctive". I won't repeat the other good explanations here.
उसे is a contraction of उसको. If you break that word apart into उस and को, you can see it means "to him/her". This the dative case. Notes: (1) You may see उसको written as two separate words, उस को. (2) The forms involving को are uncommon in everyday speech.
उससे is simply the words उस (him/her) and से (from/with/by) connected together. उससे is in the instrumental case. I can't recall ever having seen this rendered as two separate words.
Hope this helps. :-)
Thank you so much. I wonder if I should have learned about dative versus instrumental case using Duolingo. Should I? I wonder if some written material is available. I sometimes use my Translate App (phone). It does not always agree with Duolingo. All of a sudden GRAMMAR has become complicated. I am fond of Grammar but am not a full-time student!
I don't recall if any of the Duolingo tips mentioned the dative case. I'm sure they don't mention the instrumental case. Every once in a while, I just put in some extra time diving deep, and I pick up stuff like this along the way.
Since I'm doing multiple languages, putting extra time into learning the linguistics terminology when working on one language pays off later when I'm focused on a different one.