"ये लोग पौने एक बजे नाश्ता करते हैं।"
Translation:These people eat breakfast at quarter to one.
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(Native AmE speaker) I've heard people both include and drop the indefinite article. It depends on the context, how informal you're being, and how fast you're talking, but "at quarter to one" is a legitimate thing to say. Sometimes.
I don't think I've ever heard someone say "half after" instead of "half past" with regard to time, but we're a big country with a lot of people so I can't speak for everyone.
I think it should be translated as something else to make the distinction clearer - करते is too close to खाते for it not to be confusing to translate them to exactly the same in English.
'Break fast' would be another option, no extra verb. But I think I like your 'have breakfast' suggestion best.
This also works with numbers not associated with time.
That's interesting, thanks for that!
(And while I'm here, just for those using the course backwards: it doesn't work in English, you can't say 'quarter to three kilograms' or 'quarter past three kg'. Also 'three and a half' works, but not 'half past three'; 'three and a quarter' makes sense but isn't common, 'three-point-two-five' would be more usual.)