is there any particular reason this couldn't be read as "your friends have three apples"? just curious. Would you have to say दोस्तों?
I don't understand why this sentence is translated as "Your friend has..." and not "Your friends have..."? I always though that दोस्त stands for friend and for friends, both singular and plural. And why are both "आपके" and "हैं" in plural then?
This is the "masculine-singular in the oblique case." Often, the "masculine-singular in the oblique case" will look deceptively like "masc.-plural in direct case" since they will share the /e/ vowel. Therefore, it's imperative that we recognize if something is in the direct case or the oblique case.
के पास is a [two-word] post-position. It causes the preceding phrase to go into the "oblique case".
Let me know if you're unable to remember or locate the rules for the oblique case, and I'll elaborate!
is there a place in Duolingo where I can read theory_ So far I have relied on the discussion notes and mental analysis of my errors. Based on some notes in the discussions, my impression is that you guys also read theory. Is it in Duolingo or do you get to other sources_ Can someone help_ thank you.
There is also a little light bulb icon for each subject that will lead you to a page that explains some of the theory for that unit. It helps somewhat as a reference.
Tej Bhatia, Rupert Snell, Vijay Gambhir (sorry, all male names coming to mind) are some authors whose works are pretty accessible about this stuff. They are university professors in the U.S. who have done a lot to orient Hindi learning to English-speaking learners.
Many thanks, dear RanzoG. I will do some additional reading. Amazed with your talent of learning several languages, you get a lingot per language.
Thank you for your fast and brilliant explanation. I wasn't aware that in the oblique case also the plural हैं is used although it is sing. I need more time until I fully internalize the oblique case. Thanks!
In my humble opinion "हैं" is not because of the blique case but because the subject of the sentence: "three apples" is plural. The explanatory notes give the literal translation of such a sentence as: "Near my friend there are three apples" - hence "three apples" is the subject.
I agree with this - it's also why my answer of "Your friend has got three apples" should be accepted - it's a closer translation to the literal one, IMO.
Out of curiosity, what's the difference between "Your friend has 3 apples" and "Your friend has got 3 apples"? And, are you saying that the latter sentence is a more literal translation than the former?
As a speaker of Hindi as a second language (I'm doing this course to (re)learn how to read, rather than to learn how to speak it) I don't think there is a difference between the two. My wife, a native speaker who's watching me do all these translations in mild ammusment, agrees & is actually the one who suggested "your friend has got three apples" as a more better\more literal translation.
but I just saw in another question on here that "dost" is both singular and plural