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Tips & Notes – Plurals

Plurals (बहुवचन bahuvachan)

Pluralising Hindi nouns deals with four cases:

  • Masculine Nouns Ending with आ (aa): For these, the final ा vowel mark (representing आ) is replaced by े (representing ए) [sound change: aa > e]. For example, लड़का > लड़के (boy > boys), केला > केले (banana > bananas), etc.

  • Masculine Nouns Ending with Anything Else: For these, nothing changes. Their plurality is understood through the context. For example, सेब (apple>apples), आदमी (man>men), etc.

  • Feminine Nouns Ending with इ (i)/ई (ī): For these, the final ि vowel mark (representing इ) or the final ी (representing ई) change to ियाँ (representing इयाँ iyaan) [sound change: i/ ī > iyaan]. For example, लड़की > लडकियाँ (girl > girls), बिल्ली > बिल्लियाँ (cat > cats), etc.

  • Feminine Nouns Ending with Anything Else: For these, a simple addition of ें (representing एँ) is done to the word. For example, किता > किताबें (book > books), और > औरतें (woman > women), etc.

This information reduced in a table:

Noun Gender Ending Repl. Add. Example
Masculine (m.) ा (आ) े (ए) - लड़का>लड़के (boy>boys)
Masculine (m.) anything else - - आदमी>आदमी (man>men)
Feminine (f.) ि (इ)/ ी (ई) ियाँ (इयाँ) - लड़की>लडकियाँ (girl>girls)
Feminine (f.) anything else - ें (एँ) और>औरतें (woman>women)

(Repl. - Replaced by, Add. - Addition of)

Third Person Plural Pronouns – ये, वे and First Person Plural Pronoun – हम

ये (plural of यह) and वे (plural of वह) are used for ‘they’ in Hindi. Their meanings are like those of यह and वह respectively. Mostly, just like यह, ये is pronounced as ye (the way it is written, ये), whereas just like वह, वे is pronounced as vo (like वो).

हम means ‘we’ in Hindi. All these three pronouns – ये, वे, and हम use हैं as the form of होना (be).

Second Form of ‘You’ – तुम

This lesson introduces the second way to say ‘you’ – तुम. Refer to Tips and Notes – Basics 2 for its usage. Its form of होना is हो, and uses slightly different gender specification suffixes.

होना – to be

Singular Pronoun होना (be) Plural Pronoun होना (be)
मैं (I) main हूँ hūn हम (we) ham हैं hain
तुम (you) tum हो ho तुम (you all) tum हो ho
तू (you) tu है hai - -
यह/वह (he/she/it) yah/vah है hai ये/वे (they) ye/ve हैं hain

Notice: the verb forms for तू and यह/वह, and हम and ये/वे are exactly the same.

Conjugations in Simple Present

sing. Pronoun Suffix (m.) Suffix (f.) Aux. Verb होना pl. Pronoun Suffix (m.) Suffix (f.) Aux. Verb होना
मैं (I) ता taa ती हूँ hūn (am) हम (we) ते te ती हैं hain (are)
तुम (you) ते te ती हो ho (are) तुम (you all) ते te ती हो ho (are)
तू (you) ता taa ती है hai (are) - - -
यह/वह (he/she/it) ता taa ती है hai (is) ये/वे (they) ते te ती हैं hain (are)

Example Verb पीना – to drink

sing. Pronoun पीना (m.) पीना (f.) pl. Pronoun पीना (m.) पीना (f.)
मैं (I) पीता हूँ पीती हूँ हम (we) पीते हैं पीती हैं
तुम (you) पीते हो पीती हो तुम (you) पीते हो पीती हो
तू (you) पीता है पीती है - - -
यह/वह (he/she/it) पीता है पीती है ये/वे (they) पीते हैं पीती हैं

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July 29, 2018

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