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Tips & Notes – Intro

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Postpositions

Just like English has prepositions (certain words placed before nouns and pronouns that give meaning about their activity, for example, at, by, from, on, in, etc.), Hindi has postpositions. These are responsible for the third most challenging grammatical aspect of Hindi as mentioned in Tips and Notes for Basics 1 – the oblique case. The oblique case is a case, i.e. it refers to the small changes (called inflections in the world of linguistics) made at the end of nouns and pronouns when a postposition is placed after them. However, this lesson teaches those sentences which do not require the oblique case, and hence, it will be dealt with in later lessons.

So, unlike English, any (usually smaller, monosyllable) word that describes a noun’s activity or description is placed after it (post-position). For example:

Raj is in India - राज भारत में है
Here, the postposition में (in) is placed after भारत (India).

When used with a different verb:

Raj studies in India and Julia studies in America. - राज भारत में पढ़ता है और जूलिया अमेरिका में पढ़ती है।

Possessives

Words denoting possession are also gendered in Hindi. Possessive pronouns are generally different words altogether, while an equivalent of ’s (का/की/के) is used for other nouns in Hindi.

However, there is a difference. The gender and number of possessive pronouns agrees with the gender and number of the object and not the subject. This means that मेरा (my - masculine), for example, is used when the object the first person possesses is masculine, and not that that person is male.

Singular-Object Possessive Pronouns:

Pronoun m. obj. f. obj.
मैं (I) मेरा मेरी
तू (you) तेरा तेरी
वह (he/she/it) उसका उसकी
यह (he/she/it) इसका इसकी

For example,

  • My name - मेरा नाम (नाम m.)
  • Her house - उसका घर (घर m.)
  • His book - उसकी किताब (किताब f.)
  • Its eye - उसकी आँख (आँख f.)

का/की – Hindi Equivalent of Apostrophe S (‘s):

Possessive Particle m. obj. f. obj
‘s का की

For example,

  • Neha’s book – नेहा की किताब (किताब f.)
  • Neha’s apple – नेहा का सेब (सेब m.)

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