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Tips & Notes – Animals


We learnt how अपना/अपनी/अपने and मेरा/मेरी/मेरे work and how they are used depending on the object's gender and number. Let's name this system of three forms of a single word the आ/ई/ए system, which explains that adjective-like words (including all possessive pronouns, adverbs, and so on) that end with:

  • ा (आ) are used for singular masculine objects. (the oblique case of which use the े (ए) ending)

  • ी (ई) are used for singular and plural feminine objects. (the oblique case of which show no change)

  • े (ए) are used for plural masculine objects. (the oblique case of which shows no change)

For example, My:

Obj. Gender Obj. Number Nominative Case Oblique Case
masculine singular मेरा मेरे
feminine sing./pl. मेरी मेरी
masculine plural मेरे मेरे

All adjectives use the आ/ई/ए system unless they end with consonants. Adjectives, as in English, are placed before the (pro)noun.

For example:

  • बड़ा केला - big banana, बड़ी किताब - big book, बड़े बच्चे - big (mature) children.
  • मेरे बड़े भाई का बेटा - My big (elder) brother's son (usage of oblique case).

होना - The Habitual Form

We have learnt the हूँ, हो, है, हैं forms of होना. However, along with these (default) forms, होना can be conjugated just like other verbs in the simple present.

(मैं) होता/होती हूँ, (तुम) होते/होती हो, (यह/वह) होता/होती है, etc.

These forms can be referred to as the habitual form, as they are used when be is expressed in a way which represents a phenomenon that already exists and will continue to exist in the future.

For example:

  • बिल्लियाँ छोटी होती हैं (छोटी – small) – Cats are small
  • केले पीले होते हैं (पीले – yellow) – Bananas are yellow

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July 29, 2018


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