Tips & Notes – Activity
The Present Continuous Tense
In this tense, Hindi does not require the gender and noun-specification suffix at the end of the verb root. The subject’s gender and number are represented by the auxiliary verb रहना. On its own, रहना means to live. However, it also gives the meaning of staying or halting. The format for the present continuous tense is:
[Verb Root] + [Conjug. of रहना]
The forms of रहना used for this tense are different from those of its conjugation for the simple present.
|sing. Pronoun||masc.||fem.||pl. Pronoun||masc.||fem.|
|मैं (I)||रहा हूँ||रही हूँ||हम (we)||रहे हैं||रही हैं|
|तुम (you)||रहे हो||रही हो||तुम (you all)||रहे हो||रही हो|
|तू (you)||रहा है||रही है||-||-||-|
|आप (you)||रहे हैं||रही हैं||आप (you all)||रहे हैं||रही हैं|
|यह/वह (he/she/it)||रहा है||रही है||ये/वे (they)||रहे हैं||रही हैं|
For example, मैं सेब खा रहा हूँ - I am eating an apple.
Notice that the vowel sounds for the various forms of रह are those of the suffix with त in the simple present, while the forms of होना also match the conjugation as an auxiliary verb in the simple present.
आना (to come) and जाना (to go)
These verbs work in a peculiar manner:
They require the object to be in the oblique case. The object with these verbs is mostly a place.
They do not require a particle like ‘to’ in English as the oblique case suffices for it.
For example, मैं तुम्हारे घर जाता हूँ और वह मेरे घर आता है – I go to your house and he comes to my house (Here, तुम्हारा घर and मेरा घर take the oblique case)
And, मैं तुम्हारे घर जा रहा हूँ और तुम मेरे घर आ रहे हो - I am going to your house and you are coming to my house.
There is no single verb for have in Hindi. Two ways to mention possessions are:
(This has already been mentioned before) [possessive pronoun]/[noun + का/की/के] + [possession] + है/हैं - For example, मेरी दो बेटियाँ हैं - I have two daughters (literally: my two daughters are).
[pl. form of possessive pronoun]/[noun + के] + पास + है/हैं – For example, मेरे पास एक केला है - I have a banana (literally: near me banana is); and राज के पास एक बिल्ली है - Raj has a cat (literally: near Raj a cat is) This form is generally used for things and not people. (पास – near)
Postpositions Using के
Instead of being simple monosyllables, some postpositions in Hindi use the format: के + [postposition]. For example, as just learnt, के पास. Other examples include के लिए (for), के ऊपर (above), के नीचे (below), etc.
Pronouns take the plural-object form for these postpositions. For example, मेरे पास, उसके पास, जूलिया के पास, etc.
Let's say you have a sentence such as, "I am coming from the home." Would you then add the postposition से or would you leave it as it is, just as you would if the sentence read, "I am coming to the home." Also, are there any other postpositions left out with different verbs the same way?