"Julia goes to her sister's home."

Translation:जूलिया अपनी बहन के घर जाती है।

July 29, 2018

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Why is it 'ke ghar' and not 'ka ghar'?


Apparently it is because there is an (invisible) "ko", which means "to" (Julia goes TO her sister's home). As there is an (invisible) postposition here, the words just prior to it convert to the oblique form, hence instead of "ka ghar" it will be "ke ghar", signaling the invisible ko (which my hindi book refers to as a "ghostposition"). You are supposed to use the oblique form before any postposition, and in this case before any "ghostposition" too.


Excellent explanation! Thanks!


Going by that logic, the postposition 'to' applies to 'home' (Where does Julia go? To her sister's home), and home is masculine. So, shouldn't the oblique case apply to apna and not ka? Or am I just overthinking?


I'm not sure actually. It doesn't help that the oblique case of it would be identical to just having अपनी because बहन is female. It all depends on whether the possessor of the object in the oblique case is also in the oblique case. I would like some native speaker or someone further along to comment. To make a guess: I think it is in the oblique case.


The whole noun phrase 'अपनी बहन का घर' is in the oblique case . The words अपनी, बहन and घर don't change form in the oblique case so we only see का changing to के


What does oblique case means? I've read it's used when there's a postposition, but, what does it mean? How does it change the meaning?


It tells you what purpose a word is serving in a sentence.
For example, in English, both 'I' and 'me' mean the same thing. But 'I' is used when it is the subject and 'me' when it is the object. They may be considered different case-forms of the same word.
Similarly, when a word is the object of a postposition in Hindi, we use the oblique case form of the word.

I've written about the oblique case in this discussion. See if you find it useful. Also, this is the Duolingo tips section about the oblique case.


Is it true that all feminine words like अपनी and बहन don't change in oblique case (except for honorific)?


Only singular feminine nouns don't change form in the oblique case. Plural ones do. For example, the oblique case of बहनें (sisters) is बहनों.

जूलिया अपनी बहनों के घर जाती है। - Julia goes to her sisters' home


I don't think 'invisible' words is a particularly good way to look at it, nouns are in one case or another according to how they're used, and 'ghar' here is in the oblique case.

Sure, other clauses that have some noun and 'ko' might be in the oblique case too, but that doesn't really mean there's an 'invisible ko' here any more than there's an 'invisible of' when I say 'that bag is mine'.


You're thinking in English, not Hindi.

Consider how in English we might say, "We go to her house" but also, "We go home." The "to" is implied when we say "We go home".

I think it gets tricky because simply being the object does not equate with the oblique case. Having a postposition (including an implied one) is a better indicator of oblique case (or rather is what what requires the oblique case in the first place).


But how does ke signal an invisible ko? And what happened to the ka?


Ke is the oblique case of male singular. So that's why it is ke and not ka.


Thanks for the very good explanation, agape


Thanks for the explanation Agape, but could you clarify where would the postposition "ko" fit in this sentence ?


what Hindi book do you use?


But why is there 'apni' and not 'uski'? Thanks in advance!


apni means the sister is Julia's sister. Uski would mean the sister is someone else's sister, not Julia's. Use uski if you want the sentence "Julia goes to his sister's house." In English the 'her' is ambiguous: is referring to Julia as the 'her' or some other female as the 'her'. In Hindi in this instance this particular ambiguity doesn't exist.


I saw an explanation yesterday that I thought explained this well. They said apne/apni/apna is basically saying ' she goes to HER OWN sisters home'. As in it is specifying that it is Julia's sister. Much the same as the person above me stated in another way. So every time i read a sentence that could be his OWN/her OWN/their OWN I always think apna/apni/apne. I hope that makes some semblance of sense.


Very good explanation. Thank you!


Why can't you say बहन की घर in this sentence?


घर is masculine, so it needs के.
[The verb जाती (goes to) makes the whole destination oblique case.]
The form of the possessive depends on the object possessed in Hindi,
unlike English, where the form of the possessive depends on the possessor.


Oblique case. See above.


Why is it उनकी and not उसकी?


It's not उनकी, it's अपनी.

अपनी is used when you want the pronoun to refer back to the subject. The subject of this sentence is 'Julia'. The 'her' in this sentence also refers to Julia. So, you need to use अपनी.


thank you for this, i was confused by the same concept


where are the hindi alphabet for writte it in hindi?


For Windows 10 PC - Settings > Time & Language > Region & Language - Scroll down and click Add a Language - In the list of languages, scroll down and click Hindi - Click Next - Uncheck "Set as windows display language" - Click Install - You now have the keyboard.


If you want to write in Hindi, many computers have a transliteration keyboard you can use.


Why isnt 'julia bahen ki ghar jati hain' good enough?


Ghar is a masculine noun so you can't say 'ki ghar'.

'Julia behen ke ghar jaati hai' would be 'Julia goes to the sister's house' and it doesn't specify whose sister. That is why 'apni' is necessary to say that it's indeed Julia's own sister.


If Ghar is musculine and so have to say 'ke ghar' (oblique case), then for 'kitab' which is feminine, we have to say 'ko kitab' like in the below sentense. Is it correct? " Julia apni behen ko kitab padati hai"


The feminine form is ki (की) not ko.
जूलिया अपनी बहन की किताब पढ़ती है (Julia apni behen ki kitab padhti hai)- Julia reads her sister's book

Ko (को) is a different postposition altogether and is different from ka/ki/ke. Ko is roghly 'to' while ka/ki/ke are used to denote possession. Eg: जूलिया अपनी बहन को किताब देती है - Julia gives a book to her sister. Here, 'ko' is used in place of 'to' in the English sentence.


Ke is always? Why not ki


Is it because ghar masculine?


Yes, ghar is a masculine noun. 'Ke' is used here because it is in the masculine oblique case.

@ApurvaKuma387375 - All nouns in Hindi have a grammatical gender. This has little to do with biological gender and is just a way of classifying nouns depending on how they behave.


Diff between apna apni apne


Depends on the gender/number of the word that follows it - अपना if it is masculine singular, अपने if it is masculine plural (or masculine singular in the oblique case) and अपनी if it is feminine.


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