https://www.duolingo.com/aaditsingh8

Index – Hindi Tips & Notes

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नमस्ते!

Here are the tips & notes for all Hindi lessons in the Hindi Discussions Forum where they serve two objectives:

  • Since tips & notes are not accessible on every platform yet or might not be read by many learners, it seems appropriate to share them here for a better experience of learning Hindi on Duolingo.

  • This creates room for discussion about Hindi grammar rules and specific topics related to the grammatical aspects introduced in their lessons.

Index

  • Letters: The Devanagari Script (an abugida writing system), the pronunciation of यह and वह

  • Basics 1: Introduction to Hindi vocabulary, the concept of gender, होना (to be), articles

  • Basics 2: Sentence structure, introduction to verb conjugation, forms of you (the second person)

  • Plurals: Pluralisation, complete verb conjugation (simple present)

  • Intro: Postpositions, possessive pronouns, possessive particles

  • Family: Forming the oblique case, full list of possessive pronouns, formality and respect, the concept of अपना/अपनी/अपने

  • Animals: Adjective endings, habitual form of होना

  • Activity: Present continuous tense, आना/जाना (to come/go), possession with to have, के

  • Food: Personal pronouns in oblique case, accusative case, dative case, चाहिए, पसंद

(More tips & notes and additional posts dedicated to grammar rules coming up super soon!)

Happy Learning!

5 months ago

88 Comments


https://www.duolingo.com/niz.khan

I noticed that during letters, some letters are tested before they are taught. Second, why do you start long sentences immediately after learning letters? There should be simpler lessons with single words.

5 months ago

https://www.duolingo.com/RiggsSkepe

niz.khan I totally agree with you. There seems to be a huge, disconnected jump from learning letters to understanding sentences. Single words, and shorter simpler sentences at the beginning!

5 months ago

https://www.duolingo.com/Pat769088
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Yes! I also share this observation regarding sentence length and content. It would be nice to build up slowly.

5 months ago

https://www.duolingo.com/Sim431267

Yeah i agree, I've been doing only letters and practise riting them out for a cupul months and it maks it easer to read the sentinses just a sugestin

6 days ago

https://www.duolingo.com/lindakanga
lindakanga
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Hi there,
There are a couple of comments in this discussion thread that we looking into for compliance to https://www.duolingo.com/guidelines

It is also useful to check out https://support.duolingo.com/hc/en-us/articles/205101500-How-do-I-report-abuse-

In particular, I would like to draw attention to each of our responsibilities to :

Please don’t use Duolingo to... Attack a person or group of people with words and actions

Duolingo is a safe place for learners of all backgrounds. Harassment and hurtful content will not be tolerated. ... Rule of thumb: if you are making someone feel attacked or hurt, then you shouldn’t be doing it. We take these reports seriously and may delete your account without previous notice if such activity is verified by our team.

Write inflammatory comments
Hateful, obscene and off-topic comments don’t contribute to learning.

In light of this, people may want to review some of their comments and modify/delete them. These include making statements about entire communities or races of people that are derogatory.

By following these guidelines, we will all contribute to an interesting and helpful learning community.

It is also appreciated by the wider community, if we can choose to assist in keeping discussions on topic for language learning.

5 months ago

https://www.duolingo.com/VossBucci
VossBucci
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For those of you who would like a nice PDF chart of the Hindi (Devangari) alphabet, follow this link ---> http://www.omniglot.com/charts/print/hindi.pdf :-)

Here's the original article with all the information on how to join vowels to consonants as well as grammar tips and important vocabulary for various situations, etc. ---> https://www.wikihow.com/Learn-Hindi

Enjoy! :-)

5 months ago

https://www.duolingo.com/katrinahaller

Thank you!

4 months ago

https://www.duolingo.com/aredlefty
aredlefty
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Do you foresee there ever being a version where you can learn the spoken language without the characters (using the Latin alphabet)? I know you worked hard on the lessons for letters, but for someone who only wants to speak Hindi/Urdu, the letters are a huge hurdle.

5 months ago

https://www.duolingo.com/Jeff.Netto
Jeff.Netto
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To learn a language without learning the writing system is a grey area between the lazy and the disrespectful.

5 months ago

https://www.duolingo.com/Cognocto
Cognocto
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It's not disrespectful nor lazy to make decisions about what elements of the language one needs for one's own personal objectives.

5 months ago

https://www.duolingo.com/zeebo7
zeebo7
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The sad reality for Hindi is that more and more people are using the latin alphabet. With the advent of social media it's become the norm to transliterate as opposed to taking the time to learn the Devanagari keyboard. A real shame, both for the loss of the script, and also the fact that the 45 or so Hindi characters really don't map very naturally to the 26 english letters. But it may explain the logic of learning Hindi/Urdu through the Latin alphabet. To be honest I wish I knew transliterated Hindi better. I find it much easier to read devanagari, and therefore can't understand a lot of what my Hindi friends write.

5 months ago

https://www.duolingo.com/mike658920
mike658920
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Actually Fiji Hindi is transliterated using Latin characters, as many of the original Indian workers the British brought to Fiji around the turn of the last century were illiterate. Wikipedia has a good English article on Fiji Hindi.

5 months ago

https://www.duolingo.com/Wrongfooting

Fiji Hindi is often Romanized but there are resources that use the Devanagari script (Rodney Moag's excellent fellowship work which is available online in pdf format is a good example).

Romanization is often inconsistent which is why the Devanagari script is much better.

1 month ago

https://www.duolingo.com/sjashvina
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As someone who is Indian, I disagree with it being disrespectful or lazy. I understand Hindi but am not great with grammar, but learning grammar only after learning how to read and write in Devrangi (which isn't something that's super used nowadays) makes it a thousand times harder for me to polish my skills

5 months ago

https://www.duolingo.com/VossBucci
VossBucci
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Hi, I learned to read Hindi when I was 14 out of curiosity. I found it simple to learn and it took me about a week with practice. After that, I was able to start learning grammar and vocab more easily buying books without transliteration where possible. :-) The Devengari alphabet is beautiful and shouldn't be ignored, in my opinion. Actually, studying Hindi opened the door to other languages with different alphabets and writing systems. I can now read Greek and Chinese very well, for example, and Japanese Hiragana and Kanji too, although my Katakana needs work! Hehe :-)

5 months ago

https://www.duolingo.com/Sivapriya15

I agree. It took me a little over a week to learn Devanagari.

5 months ago

https://www.duolingo.com/Myddrin3

I agree sjashvina.. I was being trained by an Indian lawyer.. years ago.. he was fluent in a bunch of languages.. Hindi being one. He couldn't write in any of them as I recall. But it was so impressive to see.. that's what inspired me to find duolingo.. :)

5 months ago

https://www.duolingo.com/Hus4rz

I'd maybe polemise with calling this disrespectful, but it is certainly inefficient way.

5 months ago

https://www.duolingo.com/VossBucci
VossBucci
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I agree with it being inefficient to ignore the Devangari script, especially since a lot of vocabulary learning comes from reading! One can only learn so much through conversation. Perhaps audio books are the way to go for those who would prefer to be effectively illiterate in the language. ;-)

5 months ago

https://www.duolingo.com/Myddrin3

While your claim may be correct from a purely academic standpoint. However could arbitrarily dismissing the proposition, not equally be seen as the grey area between the lazy and the disrespectful..? Possibly even to include the slightly conceited..?

5 months ago

https://www.duolingo.com/vj-
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Not sure I entirely agree, I'm a pretty fluent speaker with family etc.; but whilst my parents taught me the basics of the alphabet as a child, I've long since forgotten most of it. That said, the reason I'm doing the course is to learn to read in Hindi.

4 months ago

https://www.duolingo.com/yxnGJDdi

Here is the problem that I have noticed with that having used many resources to study Hindi, transliteration of Hindi seems to be terribly inconsistent. The Roman alphabet has many different ways to pronounce most if not all letters. This is not the case in Hindi's Devanagari Script. As Hindi is a phonetic language the best way to know how to properly pronounce a Hindi word is to read it in Devanagari script. As others have said it only takes about a week to learn the alphabet and it's few simple rules. I did this without the help of duolingo. I can read and properly pronounce much more Hindi than I can understand yet. (And this is all with having the learning challenges from dyslexia)

In short learning the letters/characters will help you be much more precise in your pronunciation. It is well worth the time and effort.

4 months ago

https://www.duolingo.com/Priit_

Thank you!

5 months ago

https://www.duolingo.com/GabrielCozzella
GabrielCozzella
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Is there somewhere to learn how to type Hindi online?

When I began the russian course the first thing I did was to learn how to type cyrilic (using this site: https://www.keybr.com/). This made life much easier in the long run. It would be very helpful to have something like this for Hindi. :)

5 months ago

https://www.duolingo.com/Jeff.Netto
Jeff.Netto
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Both Google Translator and Google Docs have “hovering virtual keyboards”. They are very practical because you can have the translation and/or save in a document for future reference. Google spreadsheets also has that function and you can create a formula (=googletranslate([cell],”hi”, “en”) that translates your entries automatically if you would like a quick reference or create a vocab list.

5 months ago

https://www.duolingo.com/GabrielCozzella
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Thanks, but I would like something more "mechanical" as the one I linked there, so I could train myself to type in Hindi with the normal keyboard without looking (keybr has difficulty levels starting with just two keys and so on).

But I'm starting to think that for this kind of alphabet this may not be the best solution, since there are some 'letters' that look like little additions to other letters and so on.

5 months ago

https://www.duolingo.com/VossBucci
VossBucci
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Hi! Lexilogos is great! However, if you have an Android smartphone, you can change your keyboard settings to add any alphabet or writing system you want so that you can type immediately in another language. That's what I do :-) When chatting, I just click the little globe icon to the left of the space bar. Try it! :-)

5 months ago

https://www.duolingo.com/Sivapriya15

There's a chrome extensions called Google Input tools that allows you to type Devanagari in the browser. I use it for duolingo, facebook, emails, etc. It's very handy.

https://chrome.google.com/webstore/detail/google-input-tools/mclkkofklkfljcocdinagocijmpgbhab?hl=en

https://google-input-tools-for-windows.en.softonic.com/

5 months ago

https://www.duolingo.com/KananG1
KananG1
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Bolnagri is a phonetic keyboard for Hindi, the one that I personally use, but I've heard InScript is faster once you get used to it, so I might switch to that soon. You can try either one.

5 months ago

https://www.duolingo.com/Wrongfooting

A few years ago I bought a set of stickers that map to the inscript keyboard which is what Windows uses for mapping the Devanagari characters onto a US English keyboard. They work very nicely. Here is an example of them selling on Amazon:

https://www.amazon.com/KEYBOARD-STICKERS-LETTERING-TRANSPARENT-BACKGROUND/dp/B001CZOS5U

I have found typing in the Hindi answers rather than using the word bank helps me learn the spelling of the words much more...and to tie into the earlier discussion, knowing how the word is spelt tells you exactly how to pronounce it. Brilliant! If only English was like that.

1 month ago

https://www.duolingo.com/antoniojack
antoniojack
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Finally! This is going to be so helpful. Thank you so much for this, and thank you, Hindi team, for developing this course.

May I ask why the Tips & Notes are not available in the actual course?

5 months ago

https://www.duolingo.com/nroy94
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Hi there, the notes are accessible, you just have to click on the 'lightbulb' symbol (only available for a few of the topics), if you hover over it, it comes up as notes. Hope that makes sense!

5 months ago

https://www.duolingo.com/Oliverbens8

Thanks very much for posting this! It's great to be able to see Tips & Notes for skills I don't have access to as it gives me a greater understanding of the Hindi language :-)

5 months ago

https://www.duolingo.com/ID-007
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Thank you for making the Tips & Notes accessible outside the course. It is very useful to have it open while going through the course. How would one go about accessing this thread from the Android Phone App?

5 months ago

https://www.duolingo.com/Oliverbens8

You would have to open it through a web browser.

5 months ago

https://www.duolingo.com/MandiAbrah

Just happy to have an accessible means of learning Hindi at last, so a big thank you to the team. On the alphabet, not wanting to get into the polemics, but as a multi linguist, I believe it is important to try to access a new language world via its own script as well as its sound and grammar worlds. Languages are mindsets after all and extraordinary places to travel around.

5 months ago

https://www.duolingo.com/Redmorro

Just starting the Hindi today, so this will be useful.

Anyone with any insight as to how similar Hindi is to other Indian languages? Any crossover? Shared features etc?

5 months ago

https://www.duolingo.com/Sivapriya15

From what I've heard, it is similar to Urdu. I've also noticed Devanagari is similar to written Gujrati. I learned that one day I was at a temple and they realized I could read Devanagari, so they put the Hanuman Chalisa written in Gujrati script in front of me. Much to my surprise, I could read it.

From my limited experience, this is all I know. I'm sure others could chime in. Ranzo Ji seems particularly knowledgeable. I greatly appreciate his contributions to these discussion boards.

5 months ago

https://www.duolingo.com/VossBucci
VossBucci
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Yes, I noticed that I can read it too! I was sat in English Literature class one day reading poems when I came across a poem by Sujhata Bhaat entitled Search For My Tongue which started in English, then into Gujarati and then English again. I found that I could read it quite easily because I was able to read Hindi! I got quite excited, I can tell you! It's a lovely poem, too :-)

5 months ago

https://www.duolingo.com/V2Blast
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Hindi and Urdu are different standardized "registers" of the Hindustani language: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hindustani_language

"The colloquial registers are mostly indistinguishable, and even though the official standards are nearly identical in grammar, they differ in literary conventions and in academic and technical vocabulary, with Urdu adopting stronger Persian and Arabic influences, and Hindi relying more heavily on Sanskrit."

It is part of the Indo-Aryan language family: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Languages_of_India#Indo-Aryan_language_family

"This language family predominates, accounting for some 1035 million speakers, or over 76.5 of the population, as per 2018 estimate. The most widely spoken languages of this group are Hindi (or more correctly, Hindustani, which includes Hindi and Urdu), Bengali, Konkani, Marathi, Gujarati, Punjabi, Kashmiri, Rajasthani, Sindhi, Assamese (Asamiya), Maithili and Odia."

See the Indo-Aryan language family Wikipedia page for more details: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Indo-Aryan_languages

4 months ago

https://www.duolingo.com/yxnGJDdi

From my understanding while Hindi and Urdu are very similar there are terms and sayings that in each language that are mostly used only with Hindus for Hindi and Muslims for Urdu. For example mother and father are pronounced completely different in the two languages.

This became glaringly obvious to me when I was watching Rasia Sultan and found many words I had to look up in an Urdu dictionary because they didn't exist in Hindi.

4 months ago

https://www.duolingo.com/Jeff.Netto
Jeff.Netto
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The Hindi tree seems to be much smaller than the other languages, any special reason for it? Are there plans for expansion?

5 months ago

https://www.duolingo.com/e70PXvdj
e70PXvdj
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It's in beta, they just released it. It's still developing.

5 months ago

https://www.duolingo.com/Sivapriya15

बहुत बहुत धन्यवाद! मैं आप 3 lingots देती हूँ

हर हर महादेव

5 months ago

https://www.duolingo.com/zanzaboonda
zanzaboonda
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Thank you!

5 months ago

https://www.duolingo.com/Natalie987732

Are these notes available in the course itself? I looked but couldn't find them. Will they be added after beta?

5 months ago

https://www.duolingo.com/Piet241184
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Thank you for this hindi course! I made a short cut through Basics 1: 5 correct aswers were "ek", 5 were "one". That was much too easy! ;-)

5 months ago

https://www.duolingo.com/ForkyMcSpoon
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It would be useful to have at a minimum tips on Devanagari, how vowels are indicated through diacritics and so forth.

Another issue might be more on Duolingo's part, but when you're learning a new script it's probably helpful to be able to see the transliteration more often.

5 months ago

https://www.duolingo.com/aaditsingh8
aaditsingh8
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Such a post is up! Check out Letters!

3 months ago

https://www.duolingo.com/EMalavathu

Is it just me or does some of the letter pronunciations sound exactly the same? For example, थी and थि sound exactly the same when you are learning the audio as does चू and चु. Is there some subtle difference I am missing?

5 months ago

https://www.duolingo.com/VossBucci
VossBucci
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These are technically long and short vowels (thi and thii, chu and chuu) but I haven't listened to the audio on Duolingo yet so I am not sure if there might be some error. Generally speaking though, when listening to Hindi, there is a slight difference between the short and long vowels, like in English, for example: ship and sheep. :-)

5 months ago

https://www.duolingo.com/EMalavathu

At least to my ears, the audio sounds exactly the same. Maybe this is something that could be altered before the course is finalized? Thanks for clarifying.

5 months ago

https://www.duolingo.com/VossBucci
VossBucci
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My Italian students have the same difficulty with English vowels, at least initially :-) So did I with Chinese initially with the "ch" and "q" sounds. I still can't use the Hindi course using my phone (which is my main device) but will have a listen to the Hindi audio using my computer at some point and let you know if I think there might be an error. :-)

5 months ago

https://www.duolingo.com/yxnGJDdi

I bring up duolingo in a browser on my phone. It works well. I suspect that it is not available on the app yet due to being in beta.

4 months ago

https://www.duolingo.com/BarbaraQ9

I have the same issue. I'm hoping with more practice I will eventually pick up the slight differences.

5 months ago

https://www.duolingo.com/Madelbaby

I noticed this especially with ष and स. Unless I'm mistaken, they sound entirely the same and are impossible to differentiate between especially with the format of some of the practice question where there the letter is not shown.

4 months ago

https://www.duolingo.com/Sivapriya15

No, श and ष sound the same, but स is not aspirated. स is like the s in the word sadhu or sandwich, while श and ष are like the sh in shout or relish.

4 months ago

https://www.duolingo.com/DiegoDutra
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Thank you very much for that! :) I'm gonna take it very seriously :D

5 months ago

https://www.duolingo.com/Maughanster_
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धन्यवाद!

5 months ago

https://www.duolingo.com/RiggsSkepe

Please teach single words (family, animals, food, etc) BEFORE teaching full sentences. It is very difficult to complete each lesson, and challenging to absorb what is being taught.

5 months ago

https://www.duolingo.com/yxnGJDdi

Do you click on the words you dont know for the hints of the meaning? I get where you are coming from. Maybe using the hints in this way will help you. I know it helps me.

4 months ago

https://www.duolingo.com/amplifymysound1
amplifymysound1
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I really want some more tips and notes.

4 months ago

https://www.duolingo.com/DerWeh

Hi there, great course! Are there any plans to also add Tips & Notes for the higher lessons? Up to now there are only tips till the lesson 'Food'. Thx!

2 months ago

https://www.duolingo.com/dharmarajaditya
dharmarajaditya
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बहुत प्रसन्नता हुई हिन्दी पाठ्यक्रम को डुओलिंगो पर देख कर। आशा है कि इसमें जो कमियाँ हैं उन्हें शीघ्र ही दूर किया जाएगा। यदि आपने इस पाठ्यक्रम को तैयार करने में सहायता की हो तो आपसे निवेदन है कि कृपया 'तू' शब्द के स्थान पर 'तुम' का प्रयोग करने को प्रोत्साहन दें।

5 months ago

https://www.duolingo.com/RanzoG
RanzoG
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I wonder if I can translate this into सीधी-सादी (straightforward, plain) Hindi :-)

बहुत [ख़ुशी] हुई हिन्दी [पाठ] को डुओलिंगो पर देख कर। आशा है कि इसमें जो कमियाँ हैं उन्हें [जल्दी] ही दूर किया जाएगा। [अगर] आपने इस [पाठ] को तैयार करने में [मदद] की हो तो आपसे [विनती] है कि कृपया 'तू' शब्द के स्थान पर 'तुम' का [इस्तेमाल] करने को [बढ़ावा] दें।

Kindly tell me where I go wrong.

5 months ago

https://www.duolingo.com/dlhgl
dlhglPlus
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Thanks for providing the Tips & Notes.

Will there be Tips & Notes for the Letters 1 - Letters 4 skills, too?

I think it would be helpful to provide an overview of the letters learnt in each skill together with some notes about how diacritics modify a vowel etc.

This would make it easier to learn the letters.

5 months ago

https://www.duolingo.com/aaditsingh8
aaditsingh8
Mod
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Such a post is up! Check out Letters!

3 months ago

https://www.duolingo.com/dlhgl
dlhglPlus
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Great, that's really helpful! :)

3 months ago

https://www.duolingo.com/JaneMulcahy

Has anybody noticed that the pronunciations of यह and वह seem to be wrong? Duolingo pronounces them literally as they are written like "yaha" and "vaha". Correct me if I'm wrong, but I was learning a little Hindi before I started on duolingo and I thought they were pronounced yeh and woh. Is this a mistake?

5 months ago

https://www.duolingo.com/EMalavathu

That is discussed in depth in another thread, I'll see if I can link it. The general consensus is that yaha and vaha is the correct traditional pronunciation. However, today, the coloqial pronunciation is "Ye" and "Vo". So feel free to make the correction in your mind, but technically the audio is correct from a "pure Hindi" perspective.

5 months ago

https://www.duolingo.com/JaneMulcahy

Got it, thank you!

5 months ago

https://www.duolingo.com/RanzoG
RanzoG
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No, there is no consensus of that. You have a few Indian Hindus, who privilege the written word, merely asserting that based on a faulty assumption that Devanagari spellings are sacred and represent what is "proper" or "older." It's like asserting that the "t" should be pronounced in English "often" just because we see it written that way, and assuming it must be there for a reason, and that the reason "must be" that it's older and therefore proper (because older is always more proper right? Well, in India it is).

There are a few topic threads here about how short vowels /a/ and /u/ undergo a change when they occur in the environment of letter ह. The vowel sounds do not correspond to Devanagari letters, and so there is no 1-to-1 phonetic way to write them. Everyone just knows to say kehna (to say), mehel (palace), rehna (to live), shehar (city), etc. The audio / pronunciation on these words is a known flaw in this otherwise excellent course.

4 months ago

https://www.duolingo.com/JaneMulcahy

Ok, that makes more sense to me. I was wondering about words like kehna and shehar. Thanks a lot for clarifying!

4 months ago

https://www.duolingo.com/Sivapriya15

I do pronounce the t in often. I'm a native English speaker, but from the US, so maybe it differs in the Queen's English?

4 months ago

https://www.duolingo.com/VossBucci
VossBucci
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It's a regional thing ;-) even in the UK some people say "often" and others say "offen". I generally say both, it depends on how I feel. Hehehe :-)

4 months ago

https://www.duolingo.com/Radhe1o8
Radhe1o8
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I'm surprised to see so many different versions of the letters "ē" and "ai" ("eo", etc.). Coming from a background of Devanagari for Sanskrit, I also haven't seen "e" and "o" with long lines on them ("ē", "ō") before. Are these long lines the standard for Hindi? I know that you can add the anusvara and visarga after any vowel. Is that what is happening with these other versions of "ē"?

4 months ago

https://www.duolingo.com/RanzoG
RanzoG
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What do you mean by different versions? There is only the one /e/ and the one /o/... unless you count the "e" vowel sound that is heard in proximity to ह but which a rigorous transliteration demand we write as /a/.

I think the lines above / macrons are there to make this transliteration friendly in relation to broader discussions of Indic language. They also mark these as "long" vowels in this paradigm:

i (short) vs. ī (long) a (short) vs. ā (long) [hypothetical e ] (short) vs. ē (long) [hypothetical o] short vs. ō long.

In my opinion, there is no need for the lines on those vowels if one is just studying Hindi. They are just being sticklers.

4 months ago

https://www.duolingo.com/Aditya92
Aditya92
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:)

3 months ago

https://www.duolingo.com/AnEmeraldPhoenix

I'm not sure if anyone else had trouble with this, but I just started and I am finding it very difficult to learn the letters because the audio and the transcription of those sounds with Latin letters really do not match up to me. I hear 'uh' but apparently that's 'a', I hear 'puh' but it's written as 'gha', I hear 'tuh' but it's 'ka', etc. so I find that I'm spending most of my time in the quizzes trying to figure out which Latin letters correspond to the sounds instead of actually learning the Devanagari letters. Did anyone else have this problem or have any suggestions?

5 days ago

https://www.duolingo.com/RanzoG
RanzoG
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So do you suspect the audio to be wrong? Or do you just not like the transliteration (not transcription) system? If you saw क, which is transliterated like ka... or which in International Phonetic Alphabet would be transcribed as kə... but you heard "tuh"? Does that mean the audio is wrong, or does that mean you are having trouble with the sound of ka?

4 days ago

https://www.duolingo.com/Pat769088
Pat769088Plus
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Yes, this has been a source of frustration for me too. So much so...that I've taken a long pause to reflect on how to continue learning.

4 days ago

https://www.duolingo.com/Shahee2010

I had this problem. It's why I stopped. The audio isn't always right. I don't think anyways. I'm not sure if pronunciation slightly changes or if phones just don't like the system.

3 days ago

https://www.duolingo.com/Thorsten781499

Just a question: What is your idea of "super soon" ? ;-)

4 days ago
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