"तू खड़ा है।"

Translation:You are standing.

July 30, 2018

19 Comments


https://www.duolingo.com/SanderVink1

It lacks the continuous tense. "You are standing" would, I believe, be: तू खड़ रहा है

So why not just: "You stand"?

August 12, 2018

https://www.duolingo.com/AndriLindbergs

This is also my question. Here is a lingot for raising this issue.

The English translation 'standing' is definitely in a present continuous tense. If I where to translate it back to Hindi I would go तू खड़ रहा है.

Can someone explain?

I suspect the is some subtle grammar rule I'm missing.

August 15, 2018

https://www.duolingo.com/SanderVink1

तू खड़ा है is in the present perfect tense, not the simple present. (Which would be तू खड़ता है: You stand.)

Emry sheds some light on this in: https://forum.duolingo.com/comment/28162062

Here be dragons as I'm no expert, but perhaps this is of some assistance to you.

Think of the translated sentence like this: "You are standing (after having completed the process)".

This is different in the continuous tense, where it would be like this: "You are standing (and still in the process of completing the action)". तू खड़ रहा है (continuous tense) would cause you to imagine someone in the middle of standing up instead of just describing the final state.

Information is lost during translation. Compare these translations of the exact same tense (present perfect):

  1. तू पढ़ा है: You have read.
  2. तू बैठा है: You are seated. ("seating" => "seated")
  3. तू खड़ा है: You are standing. ("standing" => "standing")

(Technically we could translate 3 as: "You have stood", but that's a bit awkward.)

August 17, 2018

https://www.duolingo.com/Zesul

This is closer to what's actually the case, but not accurate. "तू खड़ा है" doesn't have a perfect tense verb any more than the sentence "तू लंबा है।" (You're tall) does.

"खड़ा" is an adjective, a word that describes a state, not an action.

"तू पढ़ा है" does have a present perfect tense form of the verb "पढ़ना", but "तू खड़ा है" doesn't, because "खड़ना" is not a verb (it's not even a word in Hindi for that matter).

August 17, 2018

https://www.duolingo.com/Sivapriya15

Thank you, Zesul Ji! Three lingots for you. :)

I found this which may be helpful in further explaining. https://taj.oasis.unc.edu/Hindi.Less.18/grammar05.html

Even though I've been studying Hindu for a couple of years, this is something I didn't know, so I'm really grateful for these discussion boards and all those who participate.

Jai Ho! <3

August 17, 2018

https://www.duolingo.com/Zesul

@SanderVink1, @Sivapriya15 Glad to know it was helpful. :)

@Sivapriya15, thanks for the link. I was baffled to see the word "खड़ना" there. Interestingly, they have also mentioned that it's not used in Modern Hindi—which makes one wonder why they have the word there in the first place. I think it's unlikely it was ever a word because if it was, we would also have words like खड़, खड़ो, खड़िये, खड़ता, खड़कर, खड़ने, etc., but I haven't come across any of those words, ever.

August 17, 2018

https://www.duolingo.com/SanderVink1

I see! Very interesting. Thanks for this clarification. Lingot for you.

August 17, 2018

https://www.duolingo.com/Zesul

"तू खड़ रहा है" would be a valid translation if खड़ were a verb root, but it's not. The problem here is that "You are standing" and "तू खड़ा है" aren't equivalent in the grammatical sense, unlike the sentences "You are going" and "तू जा रहा है।". I've just posted an explanation in this discussion.

August 17, 2018

https://www.duolingo.com/Zesul

I posted an explanation earlier here. Let me try again.

The sentence "तू खड़ा है।" is grammatically similar to "तू बड़ा है।" (You are big), that is, "खड़ा" is not a verb (or part of a verb) but an adjective—the adjective corresponding to the state that is the standing position.

Not all ideas are expressed using the same part of speech in different languages. For instance, the English sentence "Straighten this"—equipped with a dedicated verb "straighten"—does not have a grammatically similar translation in Hindi, which conveys the concept of "straightening" by instead using an adjective: सीधा (straight). I hope the following examples illustrate this point more clearly.

Both languages use an adjective.
I am happy. - मैं खु़श हूँ।

Both languages use a verb.
He is going. - वह जा रहा है

English uses a verb while Hindi uses an adjective.
We are standing. - हम खड़े हैं।
Straighten this. - इसे सीधा करो।

August 17, 2018

https://www.duolingo.com/PolyglotCanavar

Okey. One more question. Why we didn't say khaRaa + TAA/TI?

July 30, 2018

https://www.duolingo.com/LeMaitre

That would be translates as 'You were standing'.

July 31, 2018

https://www.duolingo.com/Sivapriya15

I think PolyglotCanavar means more adding the ta/ti suffix to the verb base - kharta or kharti

August 2, 2018

https://www.duolingo.com/PolyglotCanavar

Yeah you got me right :) So why didn't we add these suffixes to the verb?

August 2, 2018

https://www.duolingo.com/Sivapriya15

Not sure, but if I put "तू खड़ता है।" into google translate, it comes out "you are standing."

August 3, 2018

https://www.duolingo.com/emrys29

That's completely wrong. Kharta is not a word or verb form.

August 6, 2018

https://www.duolingo.com/Sivapriya15

Google translate says differently, but it's wrong, it would be great if you give further explanation, so we can all learn. What makes this verb different from other verbs to not have the suffix?

August 6, 2018

https://www.duolingo.com/justRishi

I think खड़ा होना is the infinitive so guess when a verb is a combined one with होना (to be) only होना changes hence खड़ा है. I am a learner so I can be wrong.

August 10, 2018

https://www.duolingo.com/PolyglotCanavar

So we should accept it as past continuous?

August 1, 2018

https://www.duolingo.com/Sivapriya15

It's definitely not past. In past tense, है would be था (or थी, थे, depending on the subject)

August 3, 2018
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