"तू खड़ा है।"
Translation:You are standing.
12 CommentsThis discussion is locked.
This is also my question. Here is a lingot for raising this issue.
The English translation 'standing' is definitely in a present continuous tense. If I where to translate it back to Hindi I would go तू खड़ रहा है.
Can someone explain?
I suspect the is some subtle grammar rule I'm missing.
तू खड़ा है is in the present perfect tense, not the simple present. (Which would be तू खड़ता है: You stand.)
Emry sheds some light on this in: https://forum.duolingo.com/comment/28162062
Here be dragons as I'm no expert, but perhaps this is of some assistance to you.
Think of the translated sentence like this: "You are standing (after having completed the process)".
This is different in the continuous tense, where it would be like this: "You are standing (and still in the process of completing the action)". तू खड़ रहा है (continuous tense) would cause you to imagine someone in the middle of standing up instead of just describing the final state.
Information is lost during translation. Compare these translations of the exact same tense (present perfect):
- तू पढ़ा है: You have read.
- तू बैठा है: You are seated. ("seating" => "seated")
- तू खड़ा है: You are standing. ("standing" => "standing")
(Technically we could translate 3 as: "You have stood", but that's a bit awkward.)
This is closer to what's actually the case, but not quite accurate. तू खड़ा है doesn't have a perfect tense verb any more than the sentence तू लंबा है (You're tall) does.
खड़ा is an adjective, a word that describes a state, not an action.
तू पढ़ा है does have a present perfect tense form of the verb पढ़ना, but तू खड़ा है doesn't, because खड़ना is not a verb (it's not even a word in Hindi for that matter).
Thank you, Zesul Ji! Three lingots for you. :)
I found this which may be helpful in further explaining. https://taj.oasis.unc.edu/Hindi.Less.18/grammar05.html
Even though I've been studying Hindu for a couple of years, this is something I didn't know, so I'm really grateful for these discussion boards and all those who participate.
Jai Ho! <3
@SanderVink1, @Sivapriya15 Glad to know it was helpful. :)
@Sivapriya15, thanks for the link. I was baffled to see the word "खड़ना" there. Interestingly, they have also mentioned that it's not used in Modern Hindi—which makes one wonder why they have the word there in the first place. I think it's unlikely it was ever a word because if it was, we would also have words like खड़, खड़ो, खड़िये, खड़ता, खड़कर, खड़ने, etc., but I haven't come across any of those words, ever.
"तू खड़ रहा है" would be a valid translation if खड़ were a verb root, but it's not. The problem here is that "You are standing" and "तू खड़ा है" aren't equivalent in the grammatical sense, unlike the sentences "You are going" and "तू जा रहा है।". I've just posted an explanation in this discussion.
I posted an explanation earlier here. Let me try again.
The sentence "तू खड़ा है।" is grammatically similar to "तू बड़ा है।" (You are big), that is, "खड़ा" is not a verb (or part of a verb) but an adjective—the adjective corresponding to the state that is the standing position.
Not all ideas are expressed using the same part of speech across different languages. For instance, the English sentence "Straighten this"—equipped with a dedicated verb "straighten"—does not have a grammatically similar translation in Hindi, which happens to express "straightening" by instead using an adjective: सीधा (straight). I hope the following examples illustrate this point better.
Both languages use an adjective:
I am happy. - मैं खु़श हूँ।
Both languages use a verb:
He is going. - वह जा रहा है।
English uses a verb while Hindi uses an adjective:
We are standing. - हम खड़े हैं।
Straighten this. - इसे सीधा करो।