The fact is, both of them would be translated differently in Hindi.
For the simple past tense (went), you don't use the verb होना. So, Amir's father went to America = "आमिर के पिता अमेरिका गये।"
For the present perfect tense (has gone), you add the appropriate conjugation of 'होना' after the past form of the verb, which is the translation given above.
But you are reasoning on how to reverse translate the phrase. Translating from Hindi to English went means the same thing.
Perhaps this might be: आमिर के पिता अमेरिका जा चुका है।, but I am still not sure whether this distinguishes between 'gone' and 'been'.