"Raj does not run on Friday."
Translation:राज शुक्रवार को नहीं दौड़ता ।
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'Run' is spelt दौड़ता (dauṛtā). What you've written - तोड़ता (toṛtā) - means 'break'.
Apart from that, it is correct. But note that if the नहीं is placed after the verb like in राज शुक्रवार को दौड़ता नहीं, the है is usually not omitted. So, it would be राज शुक्रवार को दौड़ता नहीं है.
I've found that pre/post-positions are often the hardest things to map between languages. Some have fewer than others and so use one term where another would use many, and some simply use them in ways that are alien to another language (eg. I might be scared of something, a speaker of another language might be scared from something). I think one just has to take it on a case by case basis and accept that 'ko' normally means to, except in this case, where it means 'on'.